After graduating in 1987 from The Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD with a bachelor's degree in Political Science, I received a PhD from Boston University in Modern European History with a minor field in European Imperialism in 1995. My dissertation focused on the Christian Democratic movement in occupied Germany -- the first avowedly democratic interconfessional political party in German history. Since then, my research interests have broadened to include the role of women in occupied Germany, Protestant-Catholic relations in twentieth-century Germany, and the utopian visions of German Christians and National Socialists. I have also published on politicized memories of Nazism in early West Germany.
My teaching interests span nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe. I offer survey courses on Europe between the French Revolution and the present: Modern Europe I (Nineteenth-Century Europe) begins in the late eighteenth century and ends with the outbreak of World War I, while Moder Europe II (Twentieth-Century Europe) covers World War I until yesterday. Modern Germany offers a more focused look at arguably the most dramatic history of Europe's modern era, that of the German states from the late eighteenth century until present, whereas European Sexualities explores the multivalent meanings of sexuality across the modern European era. My seminars include The Politics of Memory in Modern European History and Race in Modern Europe. I also teach a First-Year Seminar on War and Gender in Modern Europe.
Franklin & Marshall College, 2002-Present: Associate Professor of History. Courses taught: Nineteenth-Century European History; Twentieth-Century European History; Nationalism in Modern European History; Women and Gender in Modern European History; Gender in Modern European History; The Politics of Memory in Modern European History; Modern German History; Violence, Sex, and Power in Post-World War II Europe; War and Gender in Modern Europe; European Sexualities.
Franklin & Marshall College, 1994-2002: Assistant Professor of History.
Boston University Summer School, Summer 1994: Instructor for World History I.
University of Massachusetts, Boston, Fall 1991: Instructor for Modern World History.
Boston University Summer School, Summer 1990: Instructor for Europe in the Twentieth Century.
Boston University Metropolitan College, Spring 1990: Instructor for Western Civilizations 102.
Boston University, Department of History, Fall 1988-Spring 1990: Teaching Fellow for Western Civilizations 101 (two semesters), Western Civilizations 102, and Europe Since 1900.
Boston University, Department of History, Fall 1987-Spring 1988: Teaching Assistant for The History of International Relations in the Twentieth Century.
German Historical Institute Fritz Stern Dissertation Prize Selection Committee, 2012: Chair.
Grant Author, The Pennsylvania Humanities Council, in support of Common Hour, “America in Black and White: Lancaster Veterans and the Struggle for Racial Equality,” and Exhibit at the Phillips Museum of Art, “The Civil Rights Struggle, African American GIs, and Germany,” 2011.
German Historical Institute Fritz Stern Dissertation Prize Selection Committee, 2011.
Editorial Board, Kirchliche Zeitgeschichte, 2001-present.
Editorial Board, German Studies Review, 2001-2011.
Manuscript reviewer, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, German Studies Review, University of Toronto Press, Modern Intellectual History.
Introduction for Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, keynote speaker at the Twentieth Annual Conference on the Holocaust, Millersville University, Millersville, PA, April 2, 2000.
Panel Organizer, "Christian Democracy and European Reconstruction, 1945-1960," for the 113th Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association, Washington, DC, January 9, 1999.
Panel Organizer, "Gott, Frauen und Konsum: Rechristianizing German Women after World War II," for the Twentieth Annual Conference of the German Studies Association, Seattle, WA, October 13, 1996.
Symposium Organizer, "Gender, Women, and German Party Politics," sponsored by the American Institute for Contemporary German Politics and the Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Washington, DC, June 14, 1996: Secured institutional support and funding, contacted speakers, coordinated logistics.
Panel Co-organizer, "Instrumentalizing 'Innocence': Victim Identities in Early West German Social Policies and Party Politics," for the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the German Studies Association, Chicago, IL, September 22, 1995.
Board of Trustees Committee on Academic Affairs, 2013-2014.
Faculty Council, 2013-2014: Chair; 2011-2014: Elected Member.
Judaic Studies Committee, 1996-1998, 1999-2002, 2003-2010, 2011-2013.
Judaic Studies Committee, 2004-2007, 2013-2014: Chair.
Women’s and Gender Studies Committee, 2008-2010, 2011-2014.
University of Chichester Exchange Program, 2011, 2013: Founder and Organizer.
World War I Commemoration Steering Committee, 2012-2013: Convener.
Women's and Gender Studies/Alice Drum Women's Center Search Committee, 2013.
Alice Drum Summer Research Award Committee, 2013.
Phi Beta Kappa, 2008-2009: Vice President; 2009-2010: President; 2011-2012: Credentials Committee Member; 2012-2013: Credential Committee Special Assistant.
Students for Autism, 2011-2012, 2012-2013: Advisor.
Summer Working Group on Governance/Handbook Reform, 2012.
History of the Islamic World Search, 2011-2012: Chair.
Idea Group on Academic Distinction, Fall 2011: Member.
Curriculum Review Working Group on Information Literacy, 2011: Convener.
AAUP Outreach Committee, 2011-2012, 2012-2013.
Women’s and Gender Studies Personnel Committee, 2011-2012: Co-Chair.
Faculty Council, Elected Member, 2011-2012, 2012-2013.
Department of History Web Site Content Manager and Implementer, 2011-2012, 2012-2013.
Ware College House Fellow, First Year Orientation, 2011.
The Phillips Museum of Art Exhibit, "The Civil Rights Struggle, African American GIs, and Germany," and Common Hour, “America in Black and White: Lancaster Veterans and the Struggle for Racial Equality,” 2011: Campus Organizer.
University of Chichester Exchange Program, 2011: Founder and Organizer.
Department of History, 2007-2010: Chair.
Center for Liberal Arts and Society Board, 2008-2010.
Women and Gender Studies Committee, 2008-2013.
Judaic Studies Committee, 2004-2007: Chair.
Judaic Studies Committee, 1996-1998, 1999-2002, 2003-2013.
Sexual Assault Prevention Program, 2004-2009, 2012.
Fair Practices Committee on Gender Climate, Spring 2007.
International and Off-Campus Study Committee, 2006-2007.
Judicial Committee, Elected Member, 2006-2007.
Presidential Task Force on Quality of Campus Life, Subcommittee on Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment, Spring 2006.
Hebrew Instructor Search Committee, Spring 2006: Chair.
Presidential Task Force on Quality of Campus Life, Spring 2005.
First-Year Seminar Whitesell Prize Committee, 2005.
Modern European History Search Committee, 1995-1996, 1998, 2002, 2005.
F&M Votes, Advisory Board, 2004-present.
F&M Votes, Voter Registration Project, 2004: Co-Chair.
F&M Votes, Election Day GOTV, 2004: Co-Chair.
F&M Votes Election Film Series, 2004: Organizer.
Advanced Studies in England, Advisory Board, 2004-present.
Teacher Education Advisory Committee, 2004-2005.
LINK Mentorship Program, 2003-2004, 2004-2006.
Science, Technology, Society Committee, 2001-2002, 2004-2005.
Landis Paper Prize Committee, 2004.
Williamson Award Faculty Selection Committee, 2001.
Science, Technology, Society Search Committee, 2002.
Early Modern European History Search Committee, 2002.
Septima Clark Society, 2001-2002.
Residential Programs Selection Staff, 2001, 2002.
Faculty Writing Workshop, 2001-2002.
Health and Wellness Committee, 2000- 2002.
Multicultural Graduate Intern Search Faculty Committee, 2001.
History Club Adviser, 1999-2001.
Fulbright Fellowship Selection Committee, 2001, 2007, 2008.
Beginnings, 2000, 2001, 2004.
Career Advising Search, Faculty Committee, 2000.
History Department Careers Forum, February 2000, February 2008: Organizer.
History Department Program Development Committee, Summer 1999.
Women's Center Coordinator Search Committee, 1998.
SAVE (Sexual Assault and Violence Education) Poster Subcommittee, 1997-1998: Chair.
Committee on Off-Campus Study, 1997-1998.
Landis Paper Prize Committee, 1997.
bell hooks Reading Group, January 1997: Co-organizer.
Women's Center Executive Board, 1996-1998: Faculty Representative.
Department Liaison to Admissions Office, 1996-1997.
Mayaud Summer Study/Travel Grant Committee, 1995: Chair.
Middle Eastern History Search Committee, 1994.
Boston University, Boston, MA
Ph.D. in Modern European History with minor field in European Colonialism, 1995
M.A. in Modern European History, September 1989
The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
B.A. with Honors in Political Science, 1987
Phi Beta Kappa, May 1987
The Johns Hopkins University, The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, The Bologna Center, Bologna, Italy Diploma in International Relations, May 1986
University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany Deutschlandkundlicher Sommerkurs, Summer School of German History, Language, and Culture, Summer 1989
Goethe-Institut, Schwäbisch-Hall, Federal Republic of Germany Certificate in German Language Studies, Summer 1988
Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland Summer School of Polish Language and Culture, July 1986
Humboldt University, (East) Berlin, German Democratic Republic Summer Program for Foreigners, June 1986
FELLOWSHIPS AND SCHOLARLY APPOINTMENTS
The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva, Switzerland: Visiting Scholar, 2010-2011.
Institute for European History, Mainz, Germany: Visiting Scholar, Summer 1996, 2002-2003; Postdoctoral Fellowship, July 1995; Dissertation Fellowships, February-April 1994, January-December 1993.
Gerda Henkel Foundation, Düsseldorf, Germany: Twelve-Month Postdoctoral Research Fellowship for "Protestants and Catholics in Germany: The Transformation of Confessional Culture, 1900‑1970," awarded 1998, accepted Summer 2000 and 2002-2003.
The Mary Ingraham Bunting Institute Radcliffe Research and Study Center, Radcliffe College, Cambridge, MA: Affiliate, 1998-1999 (declined).
Abigail Quigley McCarthy Center for Women's Research, Resources and Scholarship, St Paul, MN: Abigail Associates Award, 1998.
Max Planck Institute for History, Göttingen, Germany: Research Fellowship, Summer 1998.
Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster, PA: Hackman Fellowship Program, Summer 2000, Summer 1995; Reprint Grant, Fall 1997; Research Grant, September 1996-August 1998; Summer Travel Grant, Summer 1995; Research Grant, September 1994-December 1995.
American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS), New York, NY: Grant for Travel to International Meetings Abroad for the Fifth Conference of the International Society for the Study of European Ideas (ISSEI) on Memory, History and Critique: European Identity at the Millennium, University for Humanist Studies, Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 19‑24, 1996.
German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), Bonn, Germany: Research Grant for Recent PhDs, Summer 1996; Dissertation Research Grant, July-October 1992; Scholarship for the Summer School of German History, Language and Culture, University of Regensburg, Summer 1989; Scholarship for the Goethe-Institut, Schwäbisch-Hall, Summer 1988.
German Historical Institute/American Institute for Contemporary German Studies, Washington, DC: Volkswagen-Stiftung Postdoctoral Junior Fellowship in Postwar German History, September 1995-May 1996.
German Historical Institute, Washington, DC: Dissertation Fellowship, June-December 1992 (declined).
Institute for Human Sciences (IWM), Vienna, Austria: Junior Fellowship, January-June 1992.
J. William Fulbright Award/Quadrille Ball Committee of the Germanistic Society of America, Bonn, Germany: Dissertation Fellowship, September 1990-July 1991.
Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Bonn, Germany: Dissertation Research Grant, September 1990-July 1991 (declined).
Boston University Graduate Scholarships, Fall 1990-Spring 1991, Spring 1992-Fall 1993.
Boston University Teaching Fellowships, 1988-1990.
Boston University Graduate Scholarship, 1987-1988.
The Johns Hopkins University Scholarships, 1983-1987.
HONORS AND AWARDS
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, Central Pennsylvania Consortium Provosts, Supporting the Faculty Career Cycle Award, 2010.
American Institute for Contemporary German Studies, The Johns Hopkins University, Senior Non-Resident Fellow, 2008-present.
Most Influential Professor Award in the Social Sciences (Co-Winner), Franklin & Marshall College, 2007, 2008.
Christian R. and Mary F. Lindback Foundation Award for Distinguished Teaching, Franklin & Marshall College, 2007.
Dean of the College Award, Franklin & Marshall College, for Outstanding Service to Students, 2005.
Voices for Women Annual Award, Franklin & Marshall Women's Center Award for having "reached the highest standing in leadership, character, and service as they relate to women's issues," 1998.
Boston University Graduate School's Award for Outstanding Teaching, May 1989.
Phi Beta Kappa, The Johns Hopkins University, Spring 1987.
Pi Sigma Alpha, The Johns Hopkins Political Science Honor Society, Spring 1985.
The Origins of Christian Democracy: Politics and Confession in Modern Germany. (Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 2012).
ARTICLES AND CHAPTERS IN EDITED VOLUMES
"The Construction of Christian Democracy: Confession and Ideology in German Politics," in Katarzyna Stoklosa and Andrea Strübind, eds. Glaube - Freiheit - Diktatur in Europa und den USA: Festschrift für Gerhard Besier zum 60. Geburtstag (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2007).
"Catholicism and Interconfessional Politics: The Catholic Church and the Christian Democratic Union," Kirchliche Zeitgeschichte 19, 2 (2006): 347-58.
"'Antimaterialism' in Early German Christian Democracy," in Thomas Kselman and Joseph A. Buttigieg, eds. European Christian Democracy: Historical Legacies and Comparative Perspectives (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2003).
"Die Volksgemeinschaft im Dritten Reich: Konflikt, Konzession, Konsens," in Hartmut Lehmann and Norbert Finzsch, eds. Zukunftsvisionen: Politische und soziale Utopien in Deutschland und den Vereinigten Staaten im 20. Jahrhundert. Krefelder Hefte zur deutsch-amerikanischen Geschichte, Vol. 4 (Krefeld: Stadt Krefeld, 2001).
"Volksgemeinschaft in the Third Reich: Concession, Conflict, Consensus," in Norbert Finzsch and Hermann Wellenreuther, eds. Visions of the Future in Germany and America (Oxford and New York: Berg Press, 2001).
"Christian Memories of National Socialism: Politicians and Clergy in Post-World War II Germany," in Frank Brinkhuis and Sascha Talmore, eds. Memory, History and Critique: European Identity at the Millennium. Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the International Society for the Study of European Ideas, at the University for Humanist Studies, Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 19-24 1996 [CDROM] (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1998).
"Stunde Null in German Politics? Confessional Culture, Realpolitik, and the Organization of Christian Democracy," in Geoffrey J. Giles, ed. "Stunde Null: The End and the Beginning Fifty Years Ago." Occasional Paper No. 20. (Washington, DC: German Historical Institute, 1997): 25-38.
"Materialism and Secularism: CDU Politicians and National Socialism, 1945-1949," The Journal of Modern History 67, 2 (June 1995): 278-308.
REVIEWS AND TRANSLATIONS
Review of Konstantin von Freytag-Loringhoven, Erziehung im Kollegienhaus. Reformbestrebungen an den deutschen Universitäten der amerikanischen Besatzungszone, 1945-1960, Francia-Recensio (forthcoming).
Review of Urs Altermatt, Das historische Dilemma der CVP: Zwischen katholischem Milieu und bürgerlicher Mittepartei, The Catholic Historical Review 99, 3 (July 2013): 574-75.
Review of Wolfram Kaiser, Christian Democracy and the Origins of European Union, Central European History 42, 1 (March 2009): 186-88.
Review of S. Jonathan Wiesen, West German Industry and the Challenge of the Nazi Past, 1945-1955, The Journal of Modern History 79, 4 (December 2007): 949-50.
Review of Ronald J. Granieri, The Ambivalent Alliance: Konrad Adenauer, the CDU/CSU and the West, 1949-1966, German History 25, 1 (2007): 116-18.
Review of Alexander von Plato and Almut Leh, eds. "Ein unglaublicher Frühling": Erfahrene Geschichte im Nachkriegsdeutchland 1945-1948, Kirchliche Zeitgeschichte 15, 2 (2002): 541-42.
Review of Matthias Schulze, Bund oder Schar - Verband oder Pfarrjugend? Katholische Jugendarbeit im Erzbistum Paderborn nach 1945, Kirchliche Zeitgeschichte 15, 2 (2002): 543-45.
Review of Hanna Schissler, ed. The Miracle Years: A Cultural History of West Germany, 1949-1968, The Historian, 64, 03-04 (2002): 859-860.
Review of Christoph Kösters, ed. Caritas in der SBZ/GDR 1945-1989: Erinnerungen, Berichte, Forschungen (Paderborn, Munich, Vienna, Zurich: Ferdinand Schoeningh, 2001), H-German, August 2002.
Review of Hans-Peter Schwarz, Konrad Adenauer: A German Politician and Statesman in a Period of War, Revolution and Reconstruction. Vol. 1: From the German Empire to the Federal Republic, 1876-1952, Central European History 31, 4 (1998): 446-449.
Translation of Michael Wildt, Review of Thomas Sandkühler, "Endlösung in Galizien. Der Judenmord in Ostpolen und die Rettungsinitiativen von Berthold Beitz 1941-1944 and Dieter Pohl, Nationalsozialistiche Judenverfolgung in Ostgalizien 1941-1944. Organisation und Durchführung eines staatlichen Massenverbrechens, The Journal of Holocaust and Genocide Studies 12, 3 (Winter 1998): 502-506.
Review of Stathis N. Kalyvas, The Rise of Christian Democracy in Europe, Journal of Church and State 40, 4 (Autumn 1998): 896-897.
Review of Doris L. Bergen, Twisted Cross: The German Christian Movement in the Third Reich, Holocaust and Genocide Studies 11, 3 (Winter 1997): 434-437.
“Reconstructing the ‘Männerstaat’: Catholic Women in Early Postwar Germany,” paper presented at the Thirty-Sixth Annual Conference of the German Studies Association, Milwaukee, WI, October 6, 2012.
“Priests, Politics, and Protestants: The Role of the Catholic Clergy in Forging Postwar German Democracy,” paper presented at the Thirty-Fifth Annual Conference of the German Studies Association, Louisville, KY, September 24, 2011.
"'The Esteem of Women and Girls is in Danger!': Christian Democracy and Sexual Morality in the Postwar Years," paper presented at the Thirty-Second Annual Conference of the German Studies Association, St Paul, MN, October 4, 2008.
"Balancing Babies and Books? The Benefits and Drawbacks of Post-Tenure Parenthood," paper presented at the Central Pennsylvania Consortium Women's Studies Conference, Franklin & Marshall College, March 3, 2007.
"From Kirchenkampf to Abendland: Protestant-Catholic Reconciliation after World War II," paper presented at the Thirtieth Annual Conference of the German Studies Association, Pittsburgh, PA, September 30, 2006.
"Moderate Conservatism in the German Federal Republic: The Christian Democratic Union," paper to be presented at the "Globalization, Empire, and Imperialism in Historical Perspective" Conference of The Historical Society, Chapel Hill, NC, June 3, 2006.
"Catholicism and Interconfessional Politics: The Catholic Church and the Christian Democratic Union," paper presented on my behalf at the Twenty-Ninth Annual Conference of the German Studies Association, Milwaukee, WI, October 2, 2005.
"The Changing Role of the Catholic Church in West German Politics," paper presented at the Twenty-Seventh Annual Conference of the German Studies Association, New Orleans, LA, September 19, 2003.
"Das Abendland, Anti-Materialism, and Ideological Community: The Federal Republic and the United States," paper presented at the Twenty-Fourth Annual Conference of the German Studies Association, Houston, TX, October 6, 2000.
"Gendered Reconstruction: Christian Democracy and German Women," paper presented at the 113th Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association, Washington, DC, January 9, 1999.
"Narratives of Nazism and Female Power: Christian Democratic Women in Postwar Germany," paper presented at the Sixth Conference of the International Society for the Study of European Ideas (ISSEI) on Twentieth-Century European Narrative: Tradition and Innovation, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel, August 19, 1998.
"Totalitarianism as Political Trope: The CDU Contribution," paper presented at the Twenty-First Annual Conference of the German Studies Association, Washington, DC, September 26, 1997.
"'The Hour of the Woman' in Occupied Germany: Christian Democratic Women and the Postwar Gender Order," paper presented at Siena College Conference on World War II, Loudonville, NY, May 30, 1997.
"'We Demolished a Centuries-Old Barrier': Confessional Relations and Christian Politics after 1945," paper presented at the 1996 Meeting of the Southern Historical Association, Little Rock, AR, October 30, 1996.
"Die Würde der Frau und Mutter: Christian Discourse on Women's 'Proper Place' in Post-World War II Germany," paper presented at the Twentieth Annual Conference of the German Studies Association, Seattle, WA, October 13, 1996.
"Christian Memories of National Socialism: Politicians and Clergy in Post-World War II Germany," paper presented at the Fifth Conference of the International Society for the Study of European Ideas (ISSEI) on Memory, History and Critique: European Identity at the Millennium, University for Humanist Studies, Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 23, 1996.
"'To Be the Guardians of Goodness': Christian Democracy and German Women, 1945-1949," paper presented at the Tenth Berkshire Conference on the History of Women, Chapel Hill, NC, June 9, 1996.
"The Constitution of Christian Victimhood: Protestants, Catholics, and the Early CDU," paper presented at the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the German Studies Association, Chicago, IL, September 22, 1995.
"'The Basis for a New German Nationality': Christian Democracy and German Identity, 1945-1949," paper presented at the 109th Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association, Chicago, IL, January 7, 1995.
Keynote Address, "Transnational Christianity and the Problem of Democracy: A Workshop," Harvard University, Center for European Studies, February 7, 2013.
"A 'Religious Turn'? Putting Religion Back in European History and Politics," paper presented at the Graduate Insttitute of International and Development Studies, Geneva, Switzerland, April 14, 2011.
"Volksgemeinschaft in the Third Reich: Concession, Conflict, Consensus," paper presented on my behalf at the Krefeld Historical Symposium, "Visions of the Future in Germany and America," in Krefeld, Germany, May 13-16, 1999.
"German Christian Democracy and the Rhetoric of 'Anti-Materialism,'" paper presented at the Nanovic Institute for European Studies and The Kellogg Institute for International Studies Conference, "Christian Democracy in Europe and Latin America," The University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, April 9, 1999.
"Before the Social Market Economy: Christian Democratic Economic Planning, 1945-1947," paper presented at the Rice University Center for the Study of Culture/Baker Institute Symposium, "The Road to Plandom: Non-Socialist and Pre-Socialist Economic Planning in Republican China and Europe, 1935-1950," Houston, TX, January 30, 1999.
"Christian Democratic Prescriptions for the Postwar Gender Order," paper presented at American Institute for Contemporary German Studies/ Friedrich Ebert Foundation Symposium, "Gender, Women, and German Party Politics," Washington, DC, June 14, 1996.
"The Ideology and Politics of German Christian Democracy: Constructing an Interconfessional Alliance," paper presented at the Post-War German History Research Seminar, German Historical Institute, Washington, DC, June 13, 1996.
"Gender and Family in Christian Democratic Discourse, 1945-1949," paper presented at the Standing Seminar in German History, Center for German and European Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, February 22, 1996.
"Stunde Null in German Politics? Confessional Culture, Realpolitik, and the Organization of Christian Democracy," paper presented at the Symposium of the Friends of the German Historical Institute, Washington, DC, November 17, 1995.
"Religion and Politics in Post-World War II Germany: A New Perspective on the Early CDU," paper presented at the Introductory Seminar for Volkswagen Fellows in Post-War German History, German Historical Institute, Washington, DC, October 24, 1995.
"Vom Konfessionalismus zum Interkonfessionalismus: Die Entstehung der CDU 1945-1949" (From Confessionalism to Interconfessionalism: The Origins of the CDU, 1945-1949), paper presented at the Institute for European History, Mainz, Germany, July 1, 1993.
"Materialism and Secularism: CDU Politicians and National Socialism, 1945-1949," paper presented at the History Department Seminar Series, Boston University, December 4, 1992.