Ph.D. Social Psychology, Northwestern University, May 2007
M.S. Social Psychology, Northwestern University, 2003
B.A. Psychology and Sociology (Summa Cum Laude), University of Kentucky, 2001
The processes by which individuals maintain a sense of belonging in the face of social threat
Self-Regulation and Relationships:
The ways in which social interactions and specific relationship partners impact impulse control and potential mediators such as the subjective experience of interpersonal ease
Psychology and the Media:
The nature of individuals’ parasocial relationships with their favorite television characters and their impact on behavior, attitudes, feelings, and task performance
Lucas, G. M., Knowles, M. L., Gardner, W. L., Molden, D. C., & Jefferis, V. E. (in press). Increasing social engagement among lonely individuals: The role of acceptance cues and promotion motivations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
Knowles, M. L., Lucas, G. M., Molden, D. C., Gardner, W. L., & Dean, K. K. (2010). There’s no substitute for belonging: Self-affirmation following social and non-social threats. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 173-186.
Blackhart, G. C., Knowles, M. L., Nelson, B. C., & Baumeister, R. F. (2009). Rejection elicits emotional reactions but neither causes immediate distress nor lowers self-esteem: A meta-analysis review of 192 studies on social exclusion. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13, 269-309.
Molden, D. C., Lucas, G. M., Gardner, W. L., Dean, K., & Knowles, M. L. (2009). Motivations for prevention or promotion following social exclusion: Being rejected versus being ignored. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 415-431.
Knowles, M. L., & Gardner, W. L. (2008). Benefits of membership: The activation and amplification of group identities in response to social rejection. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1200-1213.
Gardner, W. L., & Knowles, M. L. (2008). Love makes you real: Favorite television characters are perceived as “real” in a social facilitation paradigm. Social Cognition, 26, 156-168.
Knowles, M. L., & Gardner, W. L. (2007). Rejection. In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social psychology (pp. 738-740). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage