Evolutionary Exploitation of Design Options
by the First Animals with Hard Skeletons



List of references employed in characterizing skeletal elements of the Burgess Shale taxa. Most of these citations are available in the bibliography that is included in "Fossils of the Burgess Shale", by D. E. G. Briggs, D. H. Erwin and F. J. Collier
(1994, Smithsonian Institution Press). Citations not included in that bibliography are provided at the end of this list.

Phylum Porifera
Class Demospongia
Capsospongia Rigby (1986) Y
Choia Rigby (1986) Y
Crumillospongia Rigby (1986) Y
Falospongia Rigby (1986) Y
Fieldospongia Rigby (1986) Y
Halichondrites Rigby (1986) Y
Hamptonia Rigby (1986) Y
Hazelia Rigby (1986) Y
Leptomitus Rigby (1986) Y
Moleculopina Rigby (1986) Y
Pirania Rigby (1986) Y
Sentinelia Walcott (1920) Y
Takakkawia Rigby (1986) Y
Vauxia Rigby (1986) Y
Wapkia Rigby (1986) Y
Class Hexactinellida
Diagoniella Rigby (1986) Y
Protospongia Rigby (1986) Y
Stephenospongia Rigby (1986) Y
Class Calcarea
Canistrumella Rigby (1986) Y
Eiffelia Rigby (1986) Y

Phylum Cnidaria
?Class Anthozoa
?Order Pennatulacea
Thaumaptilon Conway Morris (1993) Y
?Order Actiniaria
Mackenzia Briggs et al. (1994), Y
Conway Morris (1993)
?Class Hydrozoa
?Suborder Chondrophorina
Gelenoptron Conway Morris (1993) Y

?Phylum Cnidaria
Cambrorhytium Walcott (1911)

Phylum Ctenophora
Fasciculus Collins et al. (1983) Y

Lophophorates
?Lophophorates
Odontogriphus Conway Morris (1976) Y

Phylum Brachiopoda
Class Inarticulata
Acrothyra Walcott (1924), Briggs et al. (1994) Y
Lingulella Williams (1965) Y
Micromitra Walcott (1924), Williams (1965) Y
Paterina Walcott (1924), Williams (1965) Y
Class Articulata
Diraphora Walcott (1924), Williams (1965) Y
Nisusia Walcott (1924), Williams (1965) Y

?Phylum Mollusca
Class Helcionelloida
Scenella Babcock and Robison (1988) Y

Phylum Hyolitha
Haplophrentis Marek and Yochelson (1976) Y
Babcock and Robison (1988)

Phylum Priapulida
Ancalagon Conway Morris (1977) Y
Fieldia Conway Morris (1977) Y
Louisella Conway Morris (1977) Y
Ottoia Conway Morris (1977) Y
Selkirkia Conway Morris (1977) Y

Probable priapulids
Lecythioscopa Conway Morris (1977) Y
Scolecofurca Conway Morris (1977) Y

Phylum Annelida
Class Polychaeta
Burgessochaeta Briggs et al. (1994) Y
Canadia Briggs et al. (1994) Y
Insolicorypha Briggs et al. (1994) Y
Peronochaeta Briggs et al. (1994) Y
Stephenoscolex Briggs et al. (1994) Y

Phylum Onychophora
Aysheaia Whittington (1978) Y
Hallucigenia Conway Morris (1977), Y
Ramskold (1992), Schwab (1966)

Phylum Arthropoda
"Primitive"
Branchiocaris Briggs (1976) Y
Marrella Whittington (1971) Y
Subphylum Crustacea + crustaceanomorphs
Canadaspis Briggs (1978) Y
Carnarvonia Walcott (1912) Y
Isoxys Walcott (1908), Y
Simonetta and Delle Cave (1975)
Odaraia Briggs (1981) Y
Perspicaris Briggs (1977) Y
Plenocaris Whittington (1974) Y
Tuzoia Walcott (1912), Resser (1929), Y
Simonetta and Delle Cave (1975)
Waptia Briggs et al. (1994), Walcott (1931) Y
Class Ostracoda
Aluta? Whittington (1985) Y
Class Cirripedia?
Priscansermarinus Collins and Rudkin (1981) Y
Subphylum Arachnomorpha
Class Trilobita
Chancia Harrington, H. J. et al. (1959) Y
Ehmaniella Harrington, H. J. et al. (1959) Y
Elrathia Harrington, H. J. et al. (1959) Y
Elrathina Harrington, H. J. et al. (1959), Y
Briggs et al. (1994)
Hanburia Harrington, H. J. et al. (1959) Y
Kootenia Harrington, H. J. et al. (1959), Y
Briggs et al. (1994)
Naraoia Whittington (1977) Y
Olenoides Whittington (1980) Y
Oryctocephalus Harrington, H. J. et al. (1959) Y
Pagetia Harrington, H. J. et al. (1959) Y
Parkaspis Harrington, H. J. et al. (1959) Y
Peronopsis Harrington, H. J. et al. (1959) Y
Ptychagnostus Harrington, H. J. et al. (1959) Y
Spencella Rasetti (1951, 1963) Y
Tegopelte Whittington (1985) Y
Class Chelicerata
Sanctacaris Briggs and Collins (1988) Y

Other arthropods
Actaeus Whittington (1981) Y
Alalcomenaeus Whittington (1981) Y
Burgessia Hughes (1975) Y
Emeraldella Bruton and Whittington (1983), Y
Briggs et al. (1994)
Habelia Whittington (1981) Y
Helmetia Conway Morris et al. (1982), Y
Walcott (1918), Briggs et al. (1994)
Houghtonites
Leanchoilia Bruton and Whittington (1983) Y
Molaria Whittington (1981) Y
Mollisonia Walcott (1912) Y
Sarotrocercus Whittington (1981) Y
Sidneyia Bruton (1981) Y
Skania Walcott (1931) Y
Thelxiope Simonetta (1964), Y
Simonetta and Delle Cave (1975)
Yohoia Whittington (1974), Y
Simonetta (1970)

Phylum Echinodermata
Class Cystoidea
?Gogia Sprinkle (1973), Briggs et al. (1994) Y
Class Crinoidea
Echmatocrinus Sprinkle (1973), Briggs et al. (1994) Y
Class Edrioasteroidea
Walcottidiscus Bassler (1935, 1936) Y
Class Holothuroidea
Eldonia Walcott (1911) Y

Phylum Hemichordata
Class Enteropneusta?
"Ottoia" tenuis Walcott (1911), Briggs et al. (1994), Y
Conway Morris (1977)
Class Graptolithina
Chaunograptus Ruedemann (1931) Y

Phylum Chordata
Metaspriggina Briggs et al. (1994) Y
Pikaia Conway Morris and Whittington (1979) Y


Animals not assigned to major groups
Anomalocarids
Amiella Walcott (1910) Y
Anomalocaris Whittington and Briggs (1985) Y
Hurdia Walcott (1912) Y
Proboscicaris Rolfe (1962) Y
Others
Amiskwia Conway Morris (1977) Y
Banffia Walcott (1911) Y
Dinomischus Conway Morris (1977) Y
Emmonsaspis Conway Morris (1993) Y
Nectocaris Conway Morris (1976) Y
Oesia Walcott (1911) Y
Opabinia Whittington (1975) Y
"Platydendron ovale" Simonetta and Delle Cave (1978) Y
Pollingeria Walcott (1911) Y
Portalia Briggs et al. (1994) Y
Redoubtia Walcott (1918) Y
Worthenella Walcott (1911) Y
Scleritome-bearing animals
Chancelloria Yi and Bengtson (1989) Y
Wiwaxia Conway Morris (1985), Butterfield (1990) Y