The making of art, and the study of its visual traditions, takes place at the intersection of culture, material and digital practices, and history. The Department of Art and Art History affirms the centrality of the visual and material to a liberal arts education. Thus we engage students in the processes of art making and in the historical analysis of art and architecture as the gateway to larger endeavors of knowledge: considering such issues as personal and public life, religious and secular practices, political activism and cultural power, the local and global, and transformations of visual experience over time.
The Department of Art and Art History provides the flexibility for students to design a concentration in Studio Art, Art History, or a focused combination of the two. Our coursework encourages students to make creative, innovative connections across disciplines. Classes are taught in a diverse range of spaces, from the classroom and the studio to museums and field sites. Art and Art History students benefit from an array of campus resources, including interdisciplinary programs, international programs, and digital initiatives. Through our partnership with the Phillips Museum of Art, senior majors in Studio Art have the chance to learn how to design and exhibit their work, while Art History students have hands-on curatorial opportunities and exposure to a wide-ranging collection. The city of Lancaster offers a rich urban environment for our architectural courses, as well as abundant resources for archival study and local history. Franklin & Marshall’s proximity to Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington D.C., and New York allows students to have access to some of the most important collections of art in the country; the department schedules regular field trips to these collections.
We anchor our department mission in the ideals of a liberal arts education, and our program establishes a sound foundation for a range of professional paths. Our majors have successfully undertaken advanced study at excellent graduate programs in art history, studio art, and architecture. Our majors develop habits of mind and innovative approaches to considering intellectual and visual problems that enable them to embark on diverse careers. Department alumni have developed successful careers as museum professionals, conservators, preservation professionals, and appraisers. They work as web and graphic designers, restaurateurs, and as cutting-edge fashion and video-game designers. They practice as architects, lawyers, and doctors. Because we pride ourselves in training students in ways that emphasize the interdisciplinary, the local and the global, as well as a commitment to community, we anticipate that our future alumni will forge careers in areas that we have yet to imagine.
Students who major or minor in art elect either an art history or a studio concentration. The major consists of 11 courses in either of two possible combinations, as follows:
Eleven courses are required for the studio art major:
Seven core courses are required:
One introductory course in drawing, ART 114;
One introductory course in sculpture, ART 116;
One course in photography, ART 142 (can be satisfied with ART 242);
One introductory course in 2-D design, ART 112;
One art history survey, ART 103;
One painting course, ART 222;
The advanced seminar in studio art practices, ART 462, one full credit.
In addition, students will work closely with their major advisers to choose four electives with which they can deepen their study in art history, create an area of special focus within studio art, or investigate courses of interest. Of these four electives, two are 200-level courses in studio, film, or art history; the other two are 300-level studio courses. Faculty advisers will help students construct a coherent cluster of courses for the area of special focus; this thematic cluster should be approved by advisers in the fall of students’ junior year. Advisers may approve courses in other departments as part of this cluster. Some possible areas of focus include: advanced painting; advanced sculpture; design and the environment; architecture/urbanism; and technology and image-making.
All studio art majors are required to present their work in the Senior Exhibition at the Phillips Museum. Preparation for the exhibition, guided and evaluated by Art major advisers and the professor teaching the ART 462 Studio Capstone course, includes a non-credit portfolio review in the fall semester and the required capstone course in the spring.
The writing requirement for majors concentrating in studio art is met by earning a minimum of “C” in ART 103, or in one seminar offered by the department.
Eleven courses are required for the art history major:
Eight core courses are required:
ART 103. Introduction to Western Art;
ART 114. Introductory Drawing;
CLS 115. Greek Art and Archaeology or CLS 117 Roman Art and Archaeology;
One course in Asian art history, ART 105, 281 or 283;
One course in architectural history, ART 121, 123, 211, 219, 227;
ART 231. Art and Architecture of the Italian Renaissance;
One course in modern art history (ART 241, 243, or 251);
ART 461, the advanced seminar in art history.
In addition, students will choose three electives with which they can deepen their study of studio art, create an area of special focus within art history, or investigate courses of interest. At least one of these three electives must be at or above the 300-level. Faculty advisers will help students construct a coherent cluster of courses for the area of special focus; courses in other departments may also be appropriate as part of this cluster. Some possible areas of focus include: Asian art; early modern art; 19th-century art; American art; architecture/urbanism; art and archaeology; and technology and image-making.
The writing requirement for majors concentrating in art history is met by earning a minimum grade of “C” in one seminar offered by the department.
The minor consists of six courses, as follows:
THE STUDIO MINOR
ART 103. Introduction to Western Art;
ART 114. Introductory Drawing;
Plus four other courses in studio art, chosen in consultation with an adviser, with at least one at or above the 300-level.
THE ART HISTORY MINOR
Three introductory courses:
ART 103. Introduction to Western Art;
ART 105. Introduction to Asian Art;
ART 114. Introductory Drawing.
Plus three other courses in art history, chosen in consultation with an adviser, with at least one at or above the 300-level.
To be considered for departmental honors in Art and Art History, graduating seniors, besides meeting the College’s general requirements for honors, must complete a substantial project, usually evolving from a fall semester course or independent study and continuing in an independent study in the spring. Students interested in pursuing departmental honors should consult with their academic adviser and obtain a copy of the department’s detailed guidelines.
Majors in the Department of Art and Art History have studied abroad in the following programs in recent years: Butler University England and Scotland; IAU France; IES Austria and Spain; Syracuse University Italy and Spain; Temple University in Rome; SACI Academic Semester Abroad Program. See the International Programs section of the Catalog for further information.
A list of regularly offered courses follows. Please note the key for the following abbreviations: (A) Arts; (H) Humanities; (S) Social Sciences; (N) Natural Sciences with Laboratory; (LS) Language Studies requirement; (NSP) Natural Science in Perspective; (NW) Non-Western Cultures requirement; (W) Writing requirement.
112. Color and Design. (A)
Color might well be the most difficult element of the visual arts to get a handle on. Its unpredictability makes it challenging for beginners and experienced artists alike. This course involves a close study of color: mixing, matching, varieties of contrast, and color composition. This course is also intended to help sharpen compositional problem-solving skills, visual acumen, and inventive abilities. We will work in multiple variations and revisions of drawn, painted, and collaged studies. Elements such as line, force, weight, movement, interval, figure-ground, texture, and emphasis-subordination will be emphasized. Course projects are divided between closely structured works and independent notebook studies.
114. Introductory Drawing. (A)
The fundamentals of drawing—still life, landscape, portrait and figure—using traditional and experimental techniques. The relationship of the method and techniques to artistic expression.
116. Introductory Sculpture. (A)
An introduction to how ideas and meaning can be transmitted through three-dimensional forms and materials and to the basic processes involved in the creation of the sculptures that convey those concepts. Materials include clay, wood, metal and mixed media; techniques include modeling, carving and fabrication (basic carpentry and welding). The work of sculptors, both historical and contemporary, will be examined and discussed. Students will be charged a fee for materials in this course.
214. Figure and Narrative. (A)
This intermediate drawing class is dedicated to the examination of the figure as both a form and character. Exploring a wide range of materials, such as graphite, charcoal, ink and collage, the class will start with the study of structure and form with the use of skeletons and models. The second part of the semester will incorporate props, settings, observations of everyday life, and the use of reference photographs/images in order to explore the ideas of character and narrative.
218. Introduction to Architectural Design. (A)
Studio course to focus on elements of design and idea presentation. Design of new buildings, adaptive reuse of existing buildings, solar influences on design, site planning, interior design and historical reference will be considered as background for assigned projects. Presentation will include drawings and models. No prior knowledge of drafting is necessary. Students will be charged a fee for materials in this course.
220. Sustainable Design. (A)
This course is a combination of examining the principles of sustainable/green architectural design and executing design solutions for projects, incorporating the sustainable design principles. The course includes an introduction to architectural drawing/drafting and model making as well as basic principles of architectural design, in order to effectively execute the design solutions. Same as ENE 220.
222. Painting. (A)
An introduction to oil painting theory and practice with a strong emphasis on color, delineation of form and space, light and shadow, surface and texture, composition and personal expression.
224. Chinese Brush and Ink Painting. (A) (NW)
An introduction to traditional Chinese painting and art of Chinese calligraphy with emphasis on a variety of traditional and modern Chinese painting techniques through different subject matters such as bird-and-flower painting and landscape painting. The course will also explore the practical aspects of the art of Chinese calligraphy and seal carving and their relationship to Chinese painting. Students will be charged a fee for materials in this course.
228. Scene Design. (A)
Emphasizes the design process and the visual idea and analyzes designs and designers. Students prepare models and renderings of assigned productions. Same as TDF 228.
242. Digital Photography I. (A)
Emphasizes making well thought-out artistic statements with the camera. Digital photography offers many of the same practices found in traditional photography, from camera settings with depth of field, ISO speeds and optimal exposure, to reading natural and artificial light. Concentration on potential for aesthetic enhancement, manipulation and storage in the digital darkroom as well as consideration of slides of master photographs and the different genres and approaches available to the artist photographer. Does not supply complete information on all aspects of digital photography or new commercial photographic media. Students will be charged a fee for materials in this course. This course will count as ART 142 for studio majors in the classes of 2020 and beyond.
262. Motion Picture Production I. (A)
This course teaches video production basics through a series of short creative exercises in videography, location lighting, sound recording, non-linear editing, and video effects. The course is designed as an entrée into our full-semester video production workshops (e.g., 362, 364) and may be taken concurrently with one of those courses. Enrollment is by permission; students enrolled concurrently in a full-semester video workshop have first priority. Same as TDF 262.
322. Advanced Painting. (A)
An exploration of technical and expressive skills with complex painting and mixed-media techniques. This course will also develop critical thinking, aesthetic values and an awareness of contemporary issues in painting and their relationship to individual student work. Prerequisite: ART 222.
336. Sculpture and the Environment. (A)
This course brings the study of sculpture into the wider context of environmental considerations—whether they be issues of location or ecology. Once sculpture moves off the pedestal and into a larger physical scale, questions regarding its relationship to the surrounding space (whether interior or exterior) are magnified and often become integrated into the structure of the artwork. Once sculpture expands into a larger conceptual framework, questions about the nature of materials, their manufacture, recyclability and relationship the natural world also arise. Prerequisite: ART 116, ART 132 or permission of the instructor. Students will be charged a fee for materials in this course.
338. Experimental Media. (A)
This course introduces contemporary concepts and approaches towards making visual art in an experimental manner. Performance, conceptual art, time-based and digital media as well as a range of nontraditional material approaches will be explored. Not open to first-year students.
342. The Constructed Image. (A)
Concentrates on ideas surrounding narrative tableaux, still life, cinema, and staged photography; introduces creative possibilities of space, props, place, and lighting. Addresses historical and contemporary concerns. The emphasis is on photography as a creative medium, within a fine arts context. Prerequisite: ART242.
362. Narrative Video Workshop. (A)
An intensive workshop in visual storytelling. Students work in teams to develop, shoot and edit short narratives. This course requires an unusual amount of outside-of-class work. Pre- or corequisite: ART/TDF 162. Same as TDF 362.
363. Film Theory Seminar. (A)
Advanced seminar devoted to applying classical and contemporary film theory to particular problems and movies. Topic varies from term to term. Same as TDF 363.
364. Documentary Video Workshop. (A)
An intensive video production workshop, focusing on documentary as a means of community building and grass-roots activism. Students work in small groups to produce short documentaries, frequently with a community partner. The topic or focus of the course varies from term to term. Students may take this course twice. Pre- or corequisite: TDF 162. Same as TDF 364.
462. Studio Capstone Course. (A)
Designed to guide advanced major and minor students concentrating in studio art through a critical examination of what they have accomplished in recent semesters and what their direction and goals are for the foreseeable future. Emphasis on production of substantial and challenging new work within a coherent direction and choice of media as well as research into the wider context of promoting and exhibiting work as a future professional. Taught as two half-credit courses, Fall and Spring. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.
270 – 278, 370 – 378, 470 – 478. Studio Topics.
Special studio offerings, varying in subject. May be taken more than once for different subjects. Permission of instructor.
490. Independent Study in Studio Art. (A)
Independent study directed by the Studio Art staff. Prerequisite: Permission of the chairperson.
STUDIO TOPICS COURSES EXPECTED TO BE OFFERED IN 2019-2020
- Themes in Digital Imaging.
- Intermediate Sculpture.
- Advanced Painting.
- Creativity, Innovation, and Design.
Art History Courses
ART 103 is normally open only to first-years and sophomores.
103. Learning to See: Histories of Art & Architecture in the Western Tradition. (A)
How do we see the past? What do the objects produced in the past tell us about the transformation of visual experience over time? And how do we, in the modern age, tell the stories of those objects? This course introduces students to the questions art historians ask, the methods they use, and the works they study, focusing on the Western tradition from Antiquity to the present day. While the course spans more than 2000 years, it complements breadth with case studies focusing on conditions of making art, as well as the social, political and cultural contexts of cultural production. Students learn skills in looking, the analysis of visual form, and writing about what they see, skills that lay a foundation for future study in art, art history as well as many other disciplines.
105. Introduction to Asian Art. (A) (NW)
An introduction to the visual culture of East Asia (China and Japan), including a unit on Indian Buddhist art. The course examines a small number of topics with an aim to introduce basic art historical method through the close study of key monuments.
115. Greek Art and Archaeology. (A)
This course provides an overview of the archaeological monuments of ancient Greece. Coursework will focus on methodological approaches to analyzing building techniques, trends, styles and the social, political and religious functions of art and monumental architecture in ancient Greek society. Topics covered in lecture and classroom discussion will include archaeological and art historical interpretations of sacred and public architecture, urbanism, three-dimensional sculpture, relief sculpture, painting, decorative arts. There is a required field trip. Same as CLS 115.
117. Roman Art and Archaeology. (A)
This course provides an overview of the archaeological monuments of ancient Rome. Coursework will focus on methodological approaches to analyzing building techniques, trends, styles and the social, political and religious functions of art and monumental architecture in ancient Roman society. Topics covered in lecture and classroom discussion will include archaeological and art historical interpretations of sacred and public architecture, urbanism, three-dimensional sculpture, relief sculpture, painting and decorative arts. There is a required field trip. Same as CLS 117.
121. Introduction to Architecture I. (A)
A survey of architecture from the first human settlement in the Neolithic period to the dramatic spaces of Gothic cathedrals. We study the monuments of the Western tradition (Egypt, the Ancient Near East, Greece, Rome, Byzantium, Islam, the Middle Ages) and the great civilizations of Asia, Africa and America. In addition to a chronological narrative, we focus on individual case studies through which we build the foundations in understanding architectural form. We learn about materials, structure, geometry, aesthetics, ritual, theology, ideology, ecology, crafts, labor, abstraction and poetics. Ultimately, we learn how piles of stones have articulated humanity’s highest ideals, while we discover remnants of those ideals even in our own built environment. The story continues with Introduction to Architecture II, which focuses on the architecture of modernity between the Renaissance and the present. No prerequisites.
123. Introduction to Architecture II. (A)
A survey of architecture from the fifteenth century to the present. The course aims to give a thorough understanding of architectural discourse from the Renaissance to current movements. Special focus will be given to the effects of industrialization, urbanization and the dialectics of modernity. In addition to learning the parade of styles and architectural innovations, we will consider the art of building as the highest form of human inquiry within the public realm. Moreover, we will learn how to read the language of architecture, its parts, inherent qualities, contradictions and formal principles.
211. Islamic Art and Architecture. (A) (NW)
Islamic civilization is both global and regional. Spanning across three continents and fourteen centuries, it offers many interpretive challenges to western viewers, who have traditionally confined Islam to an outsider status. Growing out of the same cultural roots as medieval Europe, the art and architecture of Islam developed its own vocabulary, aesthetics and religious concerns. This chronological survey pays particular attention to the cross-cultural dimensions of Islam. We study the creative products of various caliphates but also contemplate the role that Islamic art and architecture has played in the construction of the West’s self-identity. No previous familiarity with Islamic civilization is required. Material culture will guide us through a historical and theoretical discovery beginning with Muhammad’s flight to Medina and ending with the Guggenheim’s flight to Abu Dhabi.
219. Medieval Art and Architecture. (A)
Survey of the arts and architecture of the Middle Ages from the beginnings of Christianity in the first century to the origins of the Renaissance in the fifteenth-century CE. Emphasis is given in the transcendent possibilities of aesthetic experience and the material construction of immaterial ideals. The class also traces the vestiges of medieval art in the architectural and museological expressions of modern America.
227. Lancaster Architecture. (A)
Lancaster is a virtual laboratory of architectural history representing every period of American architecture. The seminar focuses on Lancaster’s most prominent buildings and investigates how architects translate abstractions (beauty, truth, morality) on the city’s physical fabric.
231. The Material Renaissance: Art and the Economies of Culture. (A)
History tells us the Renaissance in Italy was the Golden Age of art. This course proposes otherwise, that the Renaissance inaugurated an explosive new culture of consumption, fueled by urbanization, the unprecedented production of material goods, and the economic and social capital of cities. The result was a dramatically transformed society whose traces remain today. What was the Renaissance (and why should we care)? This course explores the cultural artifacts produced in this period—including city squares, buildings, paintings, furnishings, food and fashion—through the dynamic interplay of urban and rural economies, social and political institutions, and the intellectual movement of humanism. Focusing on the material production of this period, we ask what it tells us about the myths and realities of this new age.
233. Art of the Renaissance in Northern Europe. (A)
Painting, sculpture and the graphic arts in the Netherlands and Germany during the 15th and 16th centuries. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of startling new forms of naturalism during the period and their relationship to religious beliefs, commerce and changing systems of patronage.
241. 18th- and 19th-Century Art. (A)
A survey of European art from 1750 to 1900, including such movements as Neoclassicism, Romanticism and Impressionism and such artists as Constable, Delacroix and Van Gogh. We will consider art, architecture and decorative arts in their historical and cultural contexts, examining such themes as the significance of landscape in an industrializing world, the cultural competition of World’s Fairs and the fashion for Orientalism. Prerequisite: No prerequisite, but ART 103 is strongly recommended.
243. American Art. (A)
Historical and aesthetic consideration of architecture, painting, decorative arts and sculpture produced in the United States from colonial settlement through the 1913 Armory Show. Course themes include the social functions of works of art, the relationship of U.S. and European cultures, the role of art in building a national identity, the development of an infrastructure of art institutions and the contrast and connection between popular and elite art. Prerequisite: prior coursework in art history or American studies is recommended. Same as AMS 243.
245. The History of Photography: The First 100 Years. (A)
An examination of the first 100 years of the medium from its invention to the documentary photography produced under the Farm Security Administration in the late 1930s. Emphasis will be placed on the relationship of photography to the arts of painting and literature, as well as on contextualizing photographs as documents of scientific investigation, ethnographic research, social history and personal expression. Prerequisite: Strongly recommended that students have had at least one art history course. Same as TDF 245.
247. History of Fashionable Dress. (A)
A survey of the history of fashionable dress in Europe and America from the Renaissance to the present, examining men’s and women’s clothing in the context of artistic, historical, and cultural change in the modern period. This course will be divided into three units: Chronology; Object/Theory; and Interpretation. Students will select an interpretative context in which to situate their final project: cultural history, art history, or gender studies. Prerequisite: ART 103, ART 241, WGS 210, or permission of the instructor. Same as WGS 247.
249. History of Printmaking. (A)
Comprehensive historical consideration of the development and use of printmaking in the West from the 15th century to the present, emphasizing the social and aesthetic ramifications of the medium. The course introduces various processes, including woodcut, engraving, etching, aquatint, lithography and screen printing and considers such artists as Dürer, Rembrandt, Goya, Daumier and Warhol. Includes study of actual prints and studio demonstrations of techniques. Prerequisite: ART 103, 105, 114 or permission of the instructor.
251. Modern Art Since 1900. (A)
A chronological survey of painting, sculpture, and architecture in Europe and the United States from 1900 to the present with an emphasis on modernism. The course concentrates on major artistic movements, studying their visual features, conceptual basis, relation to artistic tradition, and cultural context. Prerequisite: ART 103 or permission of the instructor.
265. Contemporary Graphic Novel. (H)
In this course, we will develop an historical, aesthetic and formal understanding of contemporary graphic fiction. We will study the genre’s precedents in early comics, the interplay of the comics and their historical and cultural contexts, graphic fiction’s engagement with high art, and the formal elements of graphic texts. Readings will include comic strips and comic books from 1900 to the present, Maus I and II, Watchmen, Fun Home, Jimmy Corrigan, It’s a Bird, Black Hole, and other comics. Same as ENG 265.
267. Motion Picture History. (A)
An introduction to doing history with movies. Treats movies from the 1890s to the 1960s. Provides an overview of the evolution of popular movies and of influential artistic and rhetorical counter-currents, including national film movements, experimental cinema and documentary. Same as TDF 267.
281. Sages and Mountains:
History of Classical Chinese Painting. (A) (NW)
An introduction to the most important genres and themes in Chinese painting from roughly the mid-fourth to the end of the 14th century. Special attention will be given to the illustration of narrative and lyric poetry, the rise of monumental landscape painting, the ideal of reclusion, the painting theory of scholars, imperial patronage, Ch’an (Zen) Buddhist painting and the dynamic interaction between painting and calligraphy.
283. Survey of Japanese Art. (A) (NW)
This course examines traditions and themes in the visual culture of Japan. Its primary objective is to investigate the development of that culture with an emphasis on the manner in which it evolved in response to Chinese and Korean cultural traditions. It provides a basic introduction to art historical approaches. We will reflect on such questions as: What cultural factors shape iconographic and stylistic traditions? In what ways do artifacts and art reflect religious and philosophical belief and ideas?
335. Destroying Images: Art and Reformation. (A)
This course examines the doctrinal and political conflicts between the Roman Catholic Church and the “reformed” religions of northern Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries, focusing on the impact on the visual culture of the period. The course examines “high” art and architecture, but pays particular attention to the attitudes towards images more broadly, the ideologies that drive them, and their operations across all sectors of society. Same as GST 335 and RST 335.
343. London & Paris, 1850–1890. (A)
A study of the artistic cultures of the two capitals of imperial power in the 19th century, London and Paris, including the architecture and urban design of the two cities as well as the decorative arts, fashion, and fine art of the period. Prerequisite: ART 103, ART 241, ART 243, or permission of the instructor. Same as WGS 343.
353. American Photography. (A)
Soon after the invention of photography, photographic images quickly constituted much of visual culture—either national or global. Sometimes photographs were made with high artistic intention, but, far more often, not. This seminar will examine diverse topics in 19th and 20th-century American photographic history, from vernacular images produced for the masses (daguerreotypes, tintypes, snapshots) to what have now become nearly iconic photographs produced either for documentary purposes or to make artistic, self-expressive statements. We will consider the work of unknown makers as well as that produced by celebrated photographers such as Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Weston, Walker Evans, Ansel Adams, Dorothea Lange, Robert Frank, and Robert Adams. Same as ART 353.
383. Landscape in Chinese Poetry, Painting and Gardens. (A) (NW)
An examination of the most enduring theme in both the literary and visual arts of China from the Han dynasty to the modern period. An introductory unit explores the philosophical foundations for later cultural development. The course then investigates the theme of landscape as it is expressed in literature (especially poetry) and painting, as well as how these two arts informed the making of gardens. Prerequisite: ART 105, ART 281 or permission of the instructor.
461. Methods in Art: Art, History and the Museum. (A)
Tensions between the diverse ways we study art—as an historical discipline, and in the context of the museum—is the subject of this seminar. Although they are integrally related, each constructs our understanding of the object, and history, differently. Working with and through the collections of the Phillips Museum of Art, students will engage the methods of the historian and the museum professional, and their complex relationships to the material object itself. Offered every Fall.
271–279, 371– 379, 471– 479. Art History Topics.
Special art history offerings, varying in subject. May be taken more than once for different subjects. Permission of instructor required.
491. Independent Study in Art History. (A)
Independent study directed by the Art History staff. Prerequisite: Permission of the chairperson.
ART HISTORY TOPICS COURSES EXPECTED TO BE OFFERED IN 2019–2020
- Sacred Real Estate.
- The Art of Building: Steven Holl.