• For Claude Yoder, the Charles A. Dana Professor of Chemistry and Franklin & Marshall's longest tenured faculty member, working on research with students such as senior Emily Christie, a chemistry major, has been "the most significant experience I've had" as a professor.
Charles A. Dana Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus
Office: HAC 318C
Lab: ​HAC 318C


B.A., Franklin & Marshall College, 1962
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1966
Postdoctoral, Cornell University, 1966


The seemingly simple inorganic component of bone and teeth--hydroxylapatite, Ca5(PO4)3OH--has occupied our attention for the last decade.  We are intrigued by the fact that a great variety of ions can replace, in part, those of apatite, which leads to applications such as remediation of heavy metals, ion-exchange, nuclear waste encapsulation, phosphors, and so on.  We have prepared apatites containing different divalent cations of elements such as Sr, Ba, Pb, and Cd and have explored the structure of these using solid state NMR and infrared spectroscopy, as well as X-ray diffraction.  Our most recent focus has been on the substitution of the carbonate ion for phosphate or hydroxide and the presence of water in the structural channels that are important to the flexibility of the these compounds.  Currently we are attempting to identify the location of the carbonate ion in the structure of various apatite types, with the hope of understanding how composition and structure may affect its location.

Grants & Awards

Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Grant, 1971-75
Lindback Teaching Award, 1974
A member of the first Council on Undergraduate Research, 1978-83
CMA Catalyst Award, 1983
Charles A. Dana Professor of Chemistry, 1986
B. R. Dewey Scholarship Award, 1992
ACS Undergraduate Research Award, 1994
E. Emmett Reid Award, 2008


2004 to present

(Undergraduate student coauthor are in bold.)

Komandun, S. P., Shumaker, F. A., Hallenbeck, S. A., Knight, C. Ij., Yoder, C. H., Buckwalter, B. A., Dufresne, C. P., Fernandez, E. J., Kaffel, C. A., Nazareno, R. E., Neu, M., Reeves, G., Rivard, J. T., Shackelford, L. J., Weinert, C.S., Structure/property relationships in branched oligogermaness.  Preparation of (Me3Ge)(3)GePh, ((Me2BuGe)-Ge-t)(3)GePh,and (Me2PhGe)(3)GePh and investigation of their properties by spectroscopic, spectrometric and electrochemical methods, Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, 848, 104-113 (2017)

Tran, L. K., Stepien, K. R., Bollmeyer, M. M., Yoder, C. H. Substitution of sulfate in apatite. American Mineralogist2017,  102, 1971-1976.

Deymier, A. C., Nair, A. K., Depalle, B., Qin, Z., Arcot, K., Drouet, C., Yoder, C. H., Buehler, M. J., Thoomopouilos, S., Genin, G. M., Pasteris, J. K., Protein-free formation of bone-like apatite: New insights into the key role of carbonation. Biomaterials, 2017, accepted.

Yoder, C. H., Havlusch, M. D., Dudrick, R. N., Shermerhorn, J. T., Tran, L. K., Deymier, A.C., The synthesis of phosphate and vanadate apatites using an aqueous one-step method. Polyhedron, 2017, 127, 403-409.

Yoder, C. H., Christie, E. L., Morford, J. L. Mo95 NMR study of the effect of structure on complexation of molybdate with alpha and beta hydroxy carboxylic acid ligands. Polyhedron, 2016, 114, 23-28.

Yoder, C. H.; Landes, N. R.; Tran, L. K.; Smith, A. K.; Pasteris, J. D. The relative stabilities of A- and B-type carbonate substitution in apatites synthesized in aquesous solution. Mineralogical Magazine, 2015, 80, 977-983.

Yoder, C. H.; Christie, E. L.; Morford, J. L. 95Mo NMR study of the effect of structure on complexation of molybdate with alpha and beta hydroxyl carboxylic acid igands. Polyhedron 2016, 114, 23-28.

Goldenberg, J. E.; Wilt, Z.; Schermerhorn, D. V.; Pasteris, J. D.; C. H., Yoder. Structural effects on incorporated water in carbonated apatites. American Mineralogist 2015, 100, 274-280.

Wilt, Z.; Fuller, C.; Bachman, R.; Weidner, V.; Pasteris, J. D.; Yoder, C. H. Synthesis and structure of carbonated barium and lead fluorapatites: Effect of cation size on A-type carbonate substitution. American Mineralogist 201499, 2176-2186.

Weidner, V. L.; Carney, M. C.; Schermerhorn, D. V.; Pasteris, J. D.; Yoder, C. H. A-type substitution in carbonated strontium fluor-, chlor- and hydroxylapatites. Mineralogical Magazine. 2015, 79(2), 399-412.

Pasteris, J. D.; Yoder, C. H.; Wopenka, B. Molecular water in nominally unhydrated carbonated hydroxylapatite: the key to a better understanding of bone mineral, American Mineralogist2014, 99, 16-27.

Pasteris, J. D.; Yoder, C. H.; Sternlieb, M. P.Liu, S. Effect of carbonate incorporation on the hydroxyl content of hydroxylapatite, Mineralogical Magazine201276, 2741-2759.

Yoder, C. H.; Pasteris, J. D.; Krol, K. A.; Weidner, V. L.; Schaeffer, R. W. Synthesis, Structure, and Solubility of Carbonated Barium Chlor- and Hydroxylapatites. Polyhedron201244, 143-149.

Yoder, C.; Pasteris, J.; Worcester, K.; Schermerhorn, D.; Sternlieb, M.Goldenberg, J.; Wilt, Z. Dehydration and Rehydratiom of Carbonated Fluor- and Hydroxylapatite. Minerals 20122, 85-99.

Yoder, C. H.; Pasteris, J. D.; Worcester, K. N.; Schermerhorn, D.V. Structural water in carbonated hydroxylapatite and fluorapatite: confirmation by solid state2H NMR. Calcified Tissue International 201290, 60-67.

Yoder, C. H.; Schaeffer, R. W.; McWilliams, P.; Roward, A.; Liu, X.; Shambeda, J. The synthesis of copper/zinc solid solutions of hydroxyl carbonate, sulphates, nitrates, chlorides, and bromides. Mineralogical Magazine 201175, 2573-2582.

Yoder, C. H.; Gotlieb, N. R.; Rowand, A. L. The Relative Stability of Stoichiometrically Related Natural and Synthetic Double Salts. American Mineralogist 2010, 95, 47-51.

Sternlieb, M. P.; Pasteris, J. D.; Williams, B. R.; Krol, K. A.; Yoder, C. H. The Structure and Solubility of Carbonated Hydroxyl and Chloro Lead Apatites. Polyhedron 2010, 29, 2364-2372.

Yoder, C. H.; Leber, P. A.; Thomsen, M. W. The Bridge to Organic Chemistry: Concepts and Nomenclature; John Wiley & Sons: New Jersey, 2010.

Yoder, C. H.; Agee, T. M.; Griffith, A. K.; Schaeffer, Jr., C. D.; Carroll, M. J.; DeToma, A. S.; Fleisher, A. J.; Gettel, C. J.; Rheingold, A. L. Use of 73Ge NMR Spectroscopy and X-ray Crystallography for the Study of Electronic Interactions in Tetrakis(phenyl)-, -(phenoxy)-, and -(thiophenoxy)germanes. Organometallics 2010, 29, 582-590.

Yoder, C. H.; Bushong, E.; Liu, X.; Weidner, V.; McWilliams, P.; Martin, K.; Lorgunpai, J.; Haller, J.; Schaeffer, R. W. The Synthesis and Solubility of Copper Hydroxyl Nitrate, Gerhardtite, Rouaite, and Likasite. Mineralogical Magazine 2010, 74, 433-440.

Amadoruge, M. L.; Yoder, C. H.; Conneywerdy, J. H.; Heroux K.; Rheingold, A. L.; Weinert, C. S. 73Ge NMR Spectral Investigations of Singly Bonded Oligogermanes. Organometallics 2009, 28, 3067-3073.

Yoder, C. H.; Griffith, A. K.; DeToma, A. S.; Gettel, C. J.; Schaeffer, Jr., C. D. Hypercoordination in Triphenyl Oxinates of the Group 14 Elements. J. Organometal. Chem. 2009, 695, 518-523.

Bushong, E. J.; Yoder, C. H. The Synthesis and Characterization of Rouaite, a Copper Hydroxy Nitrate: An Integrated First-Year Laboratory Project. J. Chem. Educ. 2009, 86, 80-81.

Schilling, A. L.; Leber, P. A.; Yoder, C. H. Exploration of SO2 scrubbers: an environmental chemistry project. J. Chem. Educ. 2009, 86, 225-226.

Sternlieb, M. P.; Brown, H. M.; Schaeffer, Jr., C. D.; Yoder, C. H. The synthesis of apatites with an organophosphate and in nonaqueous media. Polyhedron, 2009, 28, 729-732.

Leber, P. A.; Williams, B. R.; Yoder, C. H. The change in publication rates at undergraduate institutions during the last three decades. J. Chem. Educ. 2009, 86, 876-878.

Yoder, C. H.; Agee, T. M.; Schaeffer, Jr., C. D.; Carroll, M. J.; Fleisher, A. J.; De Toma, A. S. The Use of 73Ge NMR Spectroscopy for the Study of Electronic Interactions. Inorg. Chem. 2008, 47, 10765-10770.

Yoder, C. H.; Agee, T. M.; Ginion, K. E.; Hofmann, A. E.; Ewanichak, J. E.; Schaeffer, Jr., C. D.; Carroll, M. J.; Schaeffer, R. W.; McCaffrey, P. F. The relative stabilities of the copper hydroxyl sulphates. Mineralogical Magazine 2007, 71, 571-577.

Yoder, C. H. Ionic Compounds: Applications of Chemistry to Mineralogy, Wiley: New York, 2007.

Fleisher, A. J.; Schaeffer, Jr., C. D.; Buckwalter, B. A.; Yoder, C. H. Spectral assignments and reference data: 1H, 13C, and 73Ge NMR spectral analysis of substituted aryltrimethylgermanes. Mag. Res. Chem. 2006, 44, 191-194.

Yoder, C. H.; Rowand, J. P. Application of the simple salt lattice energy approximation to the solubility of minerals. Am. Mineral. 2006, 91, 747-752.

Yoder, C. H.; Flora, N.J. Geochemical Applications of the Simple Salt Approximation to the Lattice Energies of Complex Materials.  Am. Mineral2005, 90, 488-496.

Brigandi, L. M.; Leber, P.A.; Yoder, C. H. Synthesis and Analysis of Copper Hydroxy Double Salts.  J. Chem. Educ2005, 82, 1662.

Powers, D. C.; Higgs, A. T.; Obley, M. L.; Leber, P. A.; Hess, K. R.; Yoder, C. H. Analysis of natural buffer systems and the impact of acid rain. An environmental project for first-year chemistry students. J. Chem. Educ2005, 82, 274-277.

Flora, N.J.; Hamilton, K. W.; Schaeffer, R. W.; Yoder, C. H. A Comparative Study of the Synthesis of Calcium, Strontium, Barium, Cadmium, and Lead Apatites in Aqueous Solution. Syn. Reac. Inorg.-Metal. Org. Comp. 2004, 34, 503-521.

Schilling, A.L.; Hess, K.R.; Leber, P.A.; Yoder, C. H. A Simulation of the Interaction of Acid Rain with Soil Minerals. J. Chem Educ. 2004, 81, 246-247.

Ginion, K.E.;  Yoder, C. H. Preparation and Analysis of Libethenite: A Project for the First Year Laboratory. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 394.

Flora, N.J.; Yoder, C. H.; Jenkins, H. D. B. Lattice Energies of Apatites and the Estimation of ΔHf°(PO43-,g). Inorg. Chem. 2004, 43, 2340-2345.

Yoder, C. H.; Fedors, N.; Flora, N.J.; Brown, H.;  HamiltonK. The Existence of Pure Phase Transition Metal Apatites. Syn. Reac. Inorg.-Metal. Org. Comp. 2004, 34, 1835-1842.

Harle, H.D.;  Hess, K.R.; Leber, P.A.; Yoder, C. H. A Concept-based Environmental Project for the First Year Laboratory: Remediation of Barium Contaminated Soil by In-situ Immobilization. J. Chem. Educ200380, 561-562

Harle, H.D.; Han, S.; Yoder, C. H.; Schaeffer, Jr., C. D.; Falen, P. L.;  Frost, B. J.Hatalla, S. R.;  Kerstetter, S. D.Redline, J. K.; Uliana, S. L.; Walton, L. L . Properties and Reactions of Organosilanes and Organogermanes Containing the Potentially Bidentate (X(CH2)n)2N-Group. Syn. React. Inorg. Chem. 200333, 1825-1834.

Harle, H.D.; Ingram, J. A.; Hess, K. R.; Leber, P. A.; Yoder, C. H. A Simple Technique for the Determination of Solubility. J. Chem. Educ. 200380, 560.

Margolis, L. A.; Schaeffer, Jr., C. D.; Yoder, C. H. A Silicon-29 NMR Study of Adduct Formation in Organosilanes. Syn. React. Inorg. Chem. 200333, 359-367

Margolis, L. A.; Schaeffer, Jr., C. D.; Yoder, C. H. A Pb-207 NMR Study of the Adducts of Triphenyllead Chloride and Diphenyllead Dichloride. Appl. Organometal. Chem. 200317, 236-238.

In the News 

Story 11/19/2014

The Passions of a Professor: Mentoring, Science and Music

Claude Yoder, F&M's longest tenured faculty member, has many passions -- jazz, rare rocks and minerals -- but none eclipse his love of research and mentoring students.  

Read More