Curriculum Overview 

A major in Environmental Studies consists of 15 courses, 11 courses in the core program, a research methods class and three electives. The required core courses fall within three categories, Environment, Natural Environment, and Human Environment. The required Environment core courses are: ENE 117, 216 and 454. The required Natural Environment core courses are: BIO 110 and ENE 114, plus one course from the following group: ENE 226, 344, 350; ENE 221; ENE/BIO 257; BIO 323, 340, 342. The required Human Environment core courses are ECO 100 or ECO 103, plus one course from the following group: ANT 100, GOV 100, and SOC 100; three courses selected from AMS 280, ANT 234, ANT 272, ENG 258, ENG 260, ENG 376/362, ANT 272, BOS 335, ART 366, ECO 240, ENE 312 or 318, ENE 314, and ENE 320. The research/quantitative methods course may be selected from BIO 210, BOS 250, ECO 210, ENE 250, MAT 116 or MAT 216, and PSY 230. Three electives may be selected from AMS 300, 420; ANT 257; BIO 245, 360; BOS 480; ENE 250, 313, 315, 352, 361, 405; GOV 305; NSP 295; and ENE 490 (independent study). Core courses in addition to those taken to meet core requirements may be taken as electives, but the major must include at least three courses at or above the 300 level. The writing requirement in the Environmental Studies major is met by completion of ENE 454.

A minor in Environmental Studies consists of six courses, including ENE/STS 117; two courses in environmental policy/human environment (selected from ENE 216, ECO/ENE 240, AMS/ENE 280 or 401, STS/ENE 312, ENE 314 and topics courses approved by the Environmental Studies Committee); two laboratory courses (BIO 110 or ENE 114 and one of the following: BIO 323, 325, 340; ENE 221; ENE/BIO 257; ENE 226, 250, 350; and approved topics courses); and one additional environmental studies elective at the 300 or 400 level, or ENE 490. Some of these courses have prerequisites (see relevant departmental listings). No more than three courses from the student’s major can also count towards the Environmental Studies minor.

 

Our home the Earth is a complex, dynamic system. It changes from day to day and from year to year, from one ice age to the next and from eon to eon, in many different ways. Some changes are cyclical, others are quite unpredictable. We need to understand these processes, especially as they are increasingly affected by human action. They influence our habitat, to which we must continually adapt. They control the treasury of resources, rich but finite, on which we rely.

Study of the Earth draws on all traditional disciplines. Geoscientists interpret field observations and lab data using principles of chemistry, physics and concepts unique to geology. They link processes that operate within and at the surface of the Earth. Environmental scientists focus on the impact of human action, on ways in which Earth systems respond when they are disrupted. These scientists evaluate and solve a wide range of technological problems. Environmental managers and policy-makers address the same issues in their cultural, economic and political contexts. As we learn how the Earth works, we must develop the means and the political will to manage it appropriately.

At Franklin & Marshall, three majors are available to students who wish to explore these concerns: Geosciences, Environmental Sciences and Environmental Studies. Each major has its own core of introductory courses, but there is sufficient overlap among them so that students can embark on this field without immediately choosing one major or another. Later, students take more specialized courses in geosciences, mid-level courses in several sciences, or courses in environmental policy and its cultural, historical context. Each major program includes advanced courses, opportunities to engage in research with members of the faculty and an integrative capstone course. Many opportunities and significant financial support are available for students to study in the field, in their courses, on extracurricular field trips, through a variety of research programs and while studying abroad.

The scope of opportunities open to graduates of this program is very broad. Many own or are employed by businesses engaged in environmental consulting, management of water resources, environmental law and the energy industry (renewable, oil, gas and coal). Others are teaching in high schools, colleges and universities, or working in various branches of the federal government. But, this is a liberal arts program. It has served as a good launching pad for systems analysts and financiers, for veterinarians, writers and realtors and for at least one composer of classical music.

A major in Geosciences consists of 12 courses: ENE 110 or 114, followed by ENE 221, 226, 231, 321, 324, 353, and 480. ENE 353 can be taken during the summer after the sophomore or junior year. Students select one additional course above the 100-level from the Geosciences offerings. Students are also required to take the following cognate courses: CHM 111, MAT 109, and PHY 111. Students planning to pursue graduate studies or professional employment in geosciences should take as many courses as possible from the following: MAT 110, 111 and 229; PHY 112; and CHM 112. The writing requirement in the Geosciences major is met by the completion of ENE 480.

A minor in Geosciences consists of six courses, including one course selected from ENE 110 or 114, followed by ENE 221 and four Geosciences courses at the 200, 300 or 400 level selected in consultation with the department chair. A minor should focus upon a particular area of the geosciences such as surficial processes, paleobiology, geophysics, tectonics, petrology/geochemistry. No more than three courses from the student’s major can also count towards the Geosciences minor.

A major in Environmental Science consists of 15 courses: ten core science courses from the Departments of Biology, Chemistry and ENE, including 2 courses from one department, 3 courses from the second department, and 5 courses from the third department, plus two quantitative and/or field skills courses, two environment and society courses and one upper-level integrative seminar. The writing requirement in the Environmental Science major is met by completion of ENE 454.

The specific requirements for the Environmental Science major are: In ENE, the first two courses are ENE 110 or ENE 114 plus ENE 221 or ENE 226, the third course selected from ENE 257 or ENE 344, additional courses selected from upper level ENE science laboratory courses. In Biology: the first two courses are BIO 110 and BIO 220, the third course selected from BIO 323, BIO 309, BIO 340 and BIO 342; additional courses selected from upper level biology courses. In Chemistry, the first two courses are CHM 111 and CHM 112, the third chemistry course selected from CHM 211, 221 or 222; additional courses selected from upper level chemistry courses. No more than one 390/490 course can count towards the core science requirement. ENE 117 and ENE 454. The second course in the environment and society category selected from ENE 216, AMS 280 and 401, ENG/ENE 260, BOS/ENE 335, ECO/ENE 240 or another approved course. Two quantitative or field skills courses are required. The first quantitative/field skill course selected from ENE 250, BIO 210, or ENE 353 or another approved quantitative or field course. The second quantitative/field skills course can be selected from ENE 250, BIO 210, ENE 353, CHM 211, CHM 221, ENE 321, PHY 111, CPS 111 or another approved quantitative or field course.

There is no minor in Environmental Science.

Faculty affiliated with the Environmental Science curriculum include: Professors Hess, Plass, and Morford (Chemistry); Professors Sipe, Fields, Fischer, Olson, and Gotsch (Biology).

A major in Environmental Studies consists of 15 courses, 11 courses in the core program, a research methods class and three electives. The required core courses fall within three categories, Environment, Natural Environment, and Human Environment. The required Environment core courses are: ENE 117, 216 and 454. The required Natural Environment core courses are: BIO 110 and ENE 114, plus one course from the following group: ENE 226, 344, 350; ENE 221; ENE/BIO 257; BIO 323, 340, 342. The required Human Environment core courses are ECO 100 or ECO 103, plus one course from the following group: ANT 100, GOV 100, and SOC 100; three courses selected from AMS 280, ANT 234, ANT 272, ENG 258, ENG 260, ENG 376/362, ANT 272, BOS 335, ART 366, ECO 240, ENE 312 or 318, and ENE 314. The research/quantitative methods course may be selected from BIO 210, BOS 250, ECO 210, ENE 250, MAT 116 or MAT 216, and PSY 230. Three electives may be selected from AMS 300, 420; ANT 257; BIO 245, 360; BOS 480; ENE 250, 313, 315, 352, 361, 405; GOV 305; NSP 295; and ENE 490 (independent study). Core courses in addition to those taken to meet core requirements may be taken as electives, but the major must include at least three courses at or above the 300 level. The writing requirement in the Environmental Studies major is met by completion of ENE 454.

A minor in Environmental Studies consists of six courses, including ENE/STS 117; two courses in environmental policy/human environment (selected from ENE 216, ECO/ENE 240, AMS/ENE 280 or 401, STS/ENE 312, ENE 314 and topics courses approved by the Environmental Studies Committee); two laboratory courses (BIO 110 or ENE 114 and one of the following: BIO 323, 325, 340; ENE 221; ENE/BIO 257; ENE 226, 250, 350; and approved topics courses); and either ENE 454 or ENE 490. Some of these courses have prerequisites (see relevant departmental listings). No more than three courses from the student’s major can also count towards the Environmental Studies minor.

Faculty affiliated with the Environmental Studies curriculum include: Professor Mueller (English); Professor Stinchfield (Business, Organizations, and Society ); Professor Kurland (Business, Organizations, and Society); Professors Merritts, Strick, De Santo, Hirsch, and Bratman (Earth and Environment); Professor Sipe (Biology).

To be considered for honors in any of the department’s three majors, students must meet the College’s general requirements for honors. These include a significant body of excellent coursework in the department’s curriculum; no minimum grade point average is specified.

Earth and Environment majors have studied abroad in several programs in recent years, including: School for Field Studies: Costa Rica, Australia, Kenya; University of Copenhagen, Denmark; School for International Training, Tanzania; Semester in Environmental Science, Woods Hole, Mass.; Sea Education Association, Sea Semester, Wood Hole; Butler University Programs in Edinburgh and Glasgow, Scotland. See the International Programs section of the Catalog for further information.

Geosciences Courses

A list of regularly offered courses follows. Please note the key for the following abbreviations: (A) Arts; (H) Humanities; (S) Social Sciences; (N) Natural Sciences with Laboratory; (LS) Language Studies requirement; (NSP) Natural Science in Perspective; (NW) Non-Western Cultures requirement.

 

110. The Dynamic Earth. (N)

Composition and distribution of earth materials; examination of internal earth processes and their relationship to mountain-building and plate tectonics; surficial processes and environmental problems. Field trips. Formerly GEO 110.    

Staff

114. Earth, Environment and Humanity. (N) (NSP)

Investigation of the Earth with emphasis on opportunities and constraints on human activities arising from its properties. Structure and processes of the Earth; natural hazards; the role of humans in changing the face of the Earth; surface and ground water use and management; formation and degradation of soils; energy resources; human wastes. Laboratories focus on principles involved in local, national and global environmental problems and their resolution. Field trips. Formerly GEO/ENV 114.    

Staff

118. Introduction to Oceanography. (N)

World’s oceans and our interactions with them. Origin of ocean basins and seawater. Origin of submarine topographic features and sediments. Ocean floor spreading and plate tectonics. Origin, distribution and influence of ocean currents. Coastal processes and coastlines. Marine ecosystems. Biological, energy and mineral resources of the oceans. Formerly GEO 118.    

taff

221. History of the Earth. (N)

Geologic time, principles of historical geology. Physical evolution of the Earth. Patterns of change in continents and oceans; reconstruction of ancient environments. Origin and evolution of life; its influence on the oceans, the atmosphere and the Earth’s crust. Field trips. Prerequisite: ENE 110 or 114 or 118. Formerly GEO 221.    

Harnik

226. Surface of the Earth. (N)

Study of landform development. Roles of surficial processes controlled by climate and tectonics, rock characteristics and time. Special emphasis on mass wastage, surface and ground water, glaciation, wind and coastal processes in landscape development. Terrain analysis using topographic maps and aerial photographs; field trips. Relationship to environmental problems. Prerequisite: ENE 110 or 114 or 118. Formerly GEO 226.            

Merritts

231. Structural Geology. (N)

Folding, flowage and faulting of the rocks of the Earth’s crust. Related causes and mechanics of mountain building. Mapping and interpretation of these features in the field. Prerequisite: ENE 110 or 114 or 118. Formerly GEO 231.    

Ismat

250. Environmental Resources and Geographic Information Systems. (N)

Introduction to methods of analysis of contemporary environmental issues that rely on use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for assessment, understanding and solutions. GIS uses a variety of types of digital data, including remote sensing imagery, to generate computer maps of topography, land use, vegetation cover, soil type and resources for areas as small as Baker Campus and as large as the Amazon Basin. Formerly ENV/GEO 250.    

A. de Wet

257. Conservation Paleobiology. (N)

Data from fossil, archaeological, and contemporary records can inform our understanding of how species responded to past environmental changes and their potential responses in the future. Topics include extinction risk, shifting baselines, the (in)completeness of geohistorical records, environmental proxies, and the Anthropocene. Prerequisite: ENE 114, ENE 110, or BIO 110. Formerly GEO/ENV 257. Same as BIO 257.            

Harnik

321. Mineralogy. (N)

Crystallography and crystal chemistry; physical and chemical properties, stability and occurrence of common minerals, with emphasis on the common rock-forming silicates. Laboratory studies include crystal symmetry, mineral examination in hand-specimen; introduction to the polarizing microscope. Prerequisite: CHM 111. Formerly GEO 321.            

Mertzman

322. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. (N)

Origin, occurrence and interpretation of igneous and metamorphic rocks; interpretation and application of experimental phase equilibria and elementary thermodynamics. Laboratory: examination and interpretation of igneous and metamorphic rocks, textures and mineral assemblages in hand-specimen and thin-section. Prerequisite: ENE 321. Formerly GEO 322.    

Mertzman

324. Sedimentology and Stratigraphy. (N)

Geologic framework, environment of deposition and dynamics of sediments and sedimentary features; petrology and petrography of sedimentary rocks; interpretations derived from examination of sedimentary features and rock sequences in the field. Prerequisite: ENE 221. Formerly GEO 324.            
C. de Wet

344. Global Change/Natural Resources. (N)

Exploration of variables involved in global change, ranging from natural drivers of change to humanity’s direct effects on geochemical cycles and biological communities. A portion of the course deals with climate change. The global impact of humans on the Earth’s natural resources is surveyed in a scientific framework. Possible ways in which humans might mitigate these impacts are addressed. Prerequisites: ENE 114 or BIO 110 or permission of the instructor. Offered every Fall. Formerly GEO/ENV 344.    

Williams

350. Landscape Geochemistry. (N)

Introduction to the theory, practice, and application of geochemistry to Earth’s surface: Emphases will be placed on understanding the interplay among Earth systems that influence climate and weathering, and the impacts these processes have on soil formation (the Critical Zone). Students will learn to: (a) conduct field research, (b) collect, process, and analyze samples by a variety of analytical methods, and (c) interpret data. Students will think critically by conducting meaningful research that is relevant to real scientific questions. Formerly GEO 350.    

Walter

353. Summer Field Course.

Lithologic, stratigraphic and structural geologic examination of classical areas; preparation of reports and geologic maps on topographic and aerial photographic base maps in areas of sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks; examination of mineral localities. Approved courses are offered by other institutions and accepted for credit with grade. The grade earned in this course will count in Franklin & Marshall GPA calculations, regardless of whether it is being taken as a required course for a major or minor or not. May be taken for one or two course credits. Prerequisite: permission of department chair. Formerly GEO 353.     

Staff

384. Changing Views of the Earth, 16501850. (S)

A Very Wreck of a World: speculative cosmologies, descriptive natural history and the origins of a science of the Earth. The age of the Earth and our “Place in Nature”: a fall from grace, limitless horizons and the Victorian commitment to progress. National and social origins of the science and scientists. Relation of new geological concepts to the Industrial Revolution and contemporary cultural themes, including their expression in the arts. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Formerly GEO 384. Same as STS 384.  

 Staff

433. Paleontology. (N)

The nature of fossils. Analysis of growth and variation in fossil assemblages. Systematic methods. Reconstruction of the modes of life of extinct organisms. Paleoecology, paleobiogeography and biostratigraphy. Fossil record of evolutionary patterns and inferred processes in the history of life. Laboratory, field trips. Prerequisite: ENE 221 or permission of instructor. Formerly GEO 433.    

Staff

438. Tectonics.

Global tectonics: seismological, geothermal, geomagnetic and geochronological evidence of crustal and mantle history and processes; mantle bulk properties and convection; plate tectonics; sea floor spreading; application of plate tectonics to continental masses; tectonic models. Prerequisite: ENE 231. Formerly GEO 438.    

Ismat

480. Geosciences Senior Seminar.

The purpose of this capstone course for the geosciences major is for students to demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge of key geological concepts and processes, to explore the classic literature in the discipline, and to synthesize this knowledge using an Earth systems approach. This will be done via presentations, discussion, and field trips. Prerequisite: senior standing in Geosciences. Formerly GEO 480.    

Walter

490. Independent Study.

Independent study directed by the Geosciences staff. Permission of chairperson.

 

 

Environmental Studies/Science Courses

114. Earth, Environment and Humanity. (N) (NSP)

Investigation of the Earth with emphasis on opportunities and constraints on human activities arising from its properties. Structure and processes of the Earth; natural hazards; the role of humans in changing the face of the Earth; surface and ground water use and management; formation and degradation of soils; energy resources; human wastes. Laboratories focus on principles involved in local, national and global environmental problems and their resolution. Field trips. Formerly ENV/GEO 114.    

Staff

117. The Environment and Human Values. (S)

Study of historical and modern attitudes toward nature; human use of nature’s resources; effects of the growth of science and technology on human uses of and attitudes toward the environment; and the ability of modern humans to substantially alter the environment (e.g., by altering global temperature). Key concepts: human population growth; the notion of “limits to growth”; and the difficulty of managing the use of common pool resources. Formerly ENV 117. Same as STS 117.    

Bratman, Strick, Hirsch

216. Environmental Policy. (S)

Surveys how federal, state and local regulations seek to protect human health and the environment. Introduces frameworks for managing wastes and protecting air quality, water quality and habitats. Reviews policy tools, including economic incentives, penalties and legal obligations. Reviews policy evaluation, focusing on federal statutes, the legislative process that creates them, the role of the judiciary and the success of environmental law in changing practices. Offered every semester. Formerly ENV 216.            

De Santo

226. Surface of the Earth. (N)

Study of landform development. Roles of surficial processes controlled by climate and tectonics, rock characteristics and time. Special emphasis on mass wastage, surface and ground water, glaciation, wind and coastal processes in landscape development. Terrain analysis using topographic maps and aerial photographs; field trips. Relationship to environmental problems. Prerequisite: ENE 110 or 114 or 118. Offered every Fall. Formerly ENV 226.     

Merritts

234. Population. (S) (NSP)

Introduction to population studies focusing on the demography of modern societies. Topics include causes and effects of rapid population growth, changing mortality and fertility, urban growth, age/sex composition and spatial distribution. While basic demographic analysis will be covered, emphasis will be on the sociocultural context of population processes. Prerequisites: ANT 100 or SOC 100 or ECO 100 or ENE 114 or ENE 117 or permission of the instructor. Formerly ENV 234. Same as ANT/STS 234.    

Billig

240. Environmental and Natural Resource Economics. (S)

A survey of environmental and natural resource issues in economic theory and policy. History of the environmental movement and environmental debates; theory of natural resource allocation, natural resource issues; theory of environmental management—for example, externalities, public goods and common property. Topics covered will include pollution, resource depletion and global climate change. Prerequisites: ECO 100 and 103, or permission of the instructor. Formerly ENV 240. Same as ECO 240.    

Fleming

245. American Nature Essays.

An exploration of the themes, structures, styles and significance of American nature essays. The purposes of the course are to become familiar with nature essays as a distinctive form of interdisciplinary literature, to see the natural world and our place in it through the voices and visions of the best nature essayists, and to develop the arts of perception, reflection and compelling writing. The course includes weekly field trips and workshops in addition to class discussions of essays by more than 20 writers. Prerequisites: BIO 110, ENE 114 or ENE 117 and permission of the instructor. Formerly ENV 245. Same as BIO 245.    

Sipe

250. Environmental Resources  and Geographic Information Systems. (N)

Introduction to methods of analysis of contemporary environmental issues that rely on use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for assessment, understanding and solutions. GIS uses a variety of types of digital data, including remote sensing imagery, to generate computer maps of topography, land use, vegetation cover, soil type and resources for areas as small as Baker Campus and as large as the Amazon Basin. Formerly ENV 250.    

A. de Wet

257. Conservation Paleobiology. (N)

Data from fossil, archaeological, and contemporary records can inform our understanding of how species responded to past environmental changes and their potential responses in the future. Topics include extinction risk, shifting baselines, the (in)completeness of geohistorical records, environmental proxies, and the Anthropocene. Prerequisite: ENE 114, ENE 110, or BIO 110. Formerly ENV/GEO 257. Same as BIO 257.            

Harnik

258. Science Writing: Fact & Fiction. (H)

In this course, we will examine texts ranging from popular science to science fiction, by scientists and nonscientists alike. As readers, we will be interested in the ways people write about science, and, as writers, we will try to put some of these principles into practice. We will be equally interested in the ethical, social, and philosophical questions that contemporary science raises, and in how to probe these questions in writing. Formerly ENV 258. Same as ENG/STS 258.    

Anderson

260. Nature and Literature. (H)

Readings from a variety of traditions, periods, disciplines and genres to discover diverse assumptions about nature and humanity’s relation to it. Readings from both Western and non-Western cultures, though with emphasis on the British and Euro-American traditions. Such broad exploration across vast divides of time and culture should not only teach us about varied understandings of nature but also encourage self-consciousness as we form our own conceptions of what nature is and how we ought best to interact with and in it. Formerly ENV 260. Same as ENG 260.    

Mueller

280. American Landscape. (S)

An interdisciplinary study of the American landscape as it has evolved over centuries of human habitation. Examines three main themes: the domesticated and designed landscape of the mid-19th century; the crusade to preserve nature and the establishment of national and state parks in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; and the sprawling, seemingly formless automobile-dominated landscape of the late 20th century. Formerly ENV 280. Same as AMS 280.   

 Schuyler

312. Environmental History. (S)

Examination of various approaches to environmental and ecological history. Focuses on ways in which the physical and biological world have affected human history and on ways in which human social and political organization, economic activities, cultural values and scientific theories have shaped our alteration and conservation of nature. Selected case studies from environmental and ecological history, with emphasis on the 17th through the 20th centuries. Formerly ENV 312. Same as STS 312.            

Strick

313. Nuclear Power, Weapons and Waste Disposal. (NSP) (S)

Development of nuclear technology, beginning with the atomic bomb efforts of WW II. The course deals first with the technology itself, as well as with the ways in which it was embedded in and drove American and international politics, including the arms race and the Cold War. Includes postwar development of civilian nuclear power reactors, creation of the Atomic Energy Commission and the national debate over nuclear power and waste disposal methods. Formerly ENV 313. Same as STS 313.            

Strick

314. Global Environmental Politics. (S)

Analysis of environmental problem definition and policy solutions in different countries, with particular focus on the developing world. Effects of political drivers of air and water pollution, land cover change, and biodiversity conservation. Influence of political structures, power relations, cultural values, ecological dynamics, and social interactions on environmental politics. Roles of national and multilateral institutions, NGOs, and civil society in policy debates. Outcomes of multi-stakeholder negotiations over environmental governance of global commons, including North-South disputes. Counts as Human Environment core course for Environmental Studies. Prerequisite: ENE 216 or permission of instructor. Formerly ENV 314. Same as GOV 374.    

Bratman, De Santo

315. Health Risks in the Environment.

Known and emerging environmental hazards represent significant public health risks to vulnerable populations. Case studies include lead, tobacco, asthma, nutrition, and endocrine-disrupting compounds as well as common airborne and waterborne chemical and biological pollutants. The course develops an understanding of acute, chronic and cumulative health risks that result from short-term and long-term environmental exposures. Important epidemiological, demographic and environmental justice parameters are incorporated into students’ projects that focus on at-risk groups, such as children, the elderly and immuno-compromised individuals. Formerly ENV 315. Same as STS 315.     

Everett

318. Environmental History of Latin America. (NW) (S)

This course will examine the intersections of human history and culture with environmental change in Latin America from the early colonial period to the present. The major themes include the consequences and significance of the Colombian Exchange, the roles of religion and culture in shaping human relationships with nature, the development of export-led agriculture, urbanization, and the emergence of diverse environmental movements within Latin America. We will explore the origins of major environmental problems and the ways people have responded to these challenges. The course will also address how historian hae approached the study of the environment. Formerly ENV 318. Same as HIS 318.    

Shelton

320. International Environmental Law.

This course examines principles and instruments of International Environmental Law (IEL), beginning with the nature and sources of IEL and an introduction to the key actors and agencies involved in global environmental governance.  Focusing on the development of regimes addressing a range of environmental issues, the course also addresses implementation and state responsibility for environmental harm and dispute resolution. Topics explored include climate change and atmospheric pollution; the law of the sea and protection of the marine environment; international regulation of toxic substances; conservation of nature, ecosystems and biodiversity; and the intersection of international trade and environmental protection. Students will examine treaties and case law first-hand, and represent vested interests in a simulated negotiation of a multilateral environmental agreement. Prerequisite: ENE 216 or GOV 200.  Same as GOV 320.    

De Santo

335. Business and the Natural Environment. (S)

Widespread concern for a cleaner environment and sustainable practices has put new demands on business. Exploration of philosophical, theoretical, strategic and policy issues facing organizations in relation to the natural environment. Formerly ENV 335. Same as BOS 335.    

Kurland

340. Plant Ecology. (N)

An exploration of plant ecology, organized by four applied themes: global atmospheric change, air pollution and acid deposition, deer-forest interactions, and invasive species. Classes will involve lectures, primary literature discussions, field trip discussions, and seminars by invited speakers. The laboratory will include local and overnight field trips. Prerequisites: BIO 110, BIO 220, and permission of the instructor. Formerly ENV 340. Same as BIO 340.  

 Sipe

341. Environmental Chemistry.

Focuses on the chemistry of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and terrestrial environments. The objectives of this course are: 1) to understand the chemical basis underlying environmental processes, which includes understanding chemical composition, thermodynamic and kinetic controls, photochemical, oxidation and reduction reactions, aquo complexes and acid-base behavior; and 2) to use scientific literature to investigate current topics pertaining to environmental chemistry. Prerequisite: CHM112 and one of the following: CHM 221, CHM 212, ENE 226, BIO 220, BIO 323. Formerly ENV 341. Same as CHM 341.    

Morford

342. Forest Ecosystems. (N)

A course in basic and applied forest ecology, with particular emphasis on forest communities, ecosystems and landscapes. Topics include forest environments, tree physiology and growth, ecosystem productivity, biogeochemistry, disturbance regimes, regeneration processes and the history of eastern North American forests. The laboratory includes local field trips, multi-week projects and a voluntary trip to New England over fall break. Prerequisites: BIO 110, BIO 220 and permission of the instructor. Formerly ENV 342. Same as BIO 342.     

Sipe

344. Global Change/Natural Resources. (N)

Exploration of variables involved in global change, ranging from natural drivers of change to humanity’s direct effects on geochemical cycles and biological communities. A portion of the course deals with climate change. The global impact of humans on the Earth’s natural resources is surveyed in a scientific framework. Possible ways in which humans might mitigate these impacts are addressed. Prerequisites: ENE 114 or BIO 110 or permission of the instructor. Offered every Fall. Formerly GEO/ENV 344.     

Williams

350. Landscape Geochemistry. (N)

Introduction to the theory, practice, and application of geochemistry to Earth’s surface: Emphases will be placed on understanding the interplay among Earth systems that influence climate and weathering, and the impacts these processes have on soil formation (the Critical Zone). Students will learn to: (a) conduct field research, (b) collect, process, and analyze samples by a variety of analytical methods, and (c) interpret data. Students will think critically by conducting meaningful research that is relevant to real scientific questions. Formerly ENV/GEO 350.     

Walter

352. Lead Poisoning and Asthma in Urban Lancaster. (S)

Students learn about the epidemiology of asthma and lead poisoning, the pathways of exposure, and methods for community outreach and education. As it is a Community-Based Learning (CBL) course, students will work in service to the local community by collaborating with local school teachers and students in lessons that apply environmental research relating to lead poisoning and asthma in their homes and neighborhoods. They also take soil samples from locations in Lancaster and test their lead levels. Formerly ENV 352. Same as PBH/STS 352.     

Staff

360. Wildlife Conservation.

Study and management of the impact of anthropogenic activity on wildlife diversity. Topics include current threats to biodiversity, including habitat fragmentation and destruction, invasive species, pollution, and overharvesting. Effects of these threats on ecological processes that drive wildlife dynamics: genetic, population, and community processes operating in altered populations. Study of direct (management) and indirect (sustainability) methods that are being used to promote wildlife conservation. Current legislative policies affecting wildlife will also be examined. Lectures, assigned readings, and classroom discussions will range from case studies to consideration of general phenomena with global applications. Most Biology courses require one, or some combination of attendance at a research seminar; a poster session presenting research findings; a field trip and additional lab time to work on projects. Trip to Yellowstone over spring break during even years only; extra fee applies. Prerequisite: BIO 110 or ENE 114 or ENE/STS 117 and permission of the instructor. Formerly ENV 360. Same as BIO 360.    

Dawson

361. This is Garbage.

Explores the history and fate of refuse around the world. Examines the global environmental and social consequences of a linear production cycle of consumer goods, from extraction through production, distribution, consumption, and disposal. Students will design alternative methods of use and reuse and will measure local consumption and disposal patterns. Lectures will be augmented by discussions and field trips. Formerly ENV 361.    

Dawson

362. End of Nature?: Contemporary Anthropocene Literature. (H)

Mass extinction, vast gyres of floating garbage, melting polar ice caps, ocean dead zones, rising atmospheric carbon levels, super storms: have we entered the anthropocene—the geologic “age of man”? The experience of an Earth nowhere untouched by humans finds expression in all genres of literature and generates unfamiliar and compelling new ways of conceiving our species and our world. Readings include science fiction, realist fiction, poetry, non-fiction and theory. It is recommended that students complete at least one college-level literature or environmental studies course before enrolling. Formerly ENV 362. Same as ENG 362.            

Mueller

405. Marine Protected Areas.

This seminar examines the role of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), a key tool for mitigating anthropogenic impacts on the marine environment. Marine parks pose unique challenges compared with their terrestrial counterparts, and lag behind in terms of global coverage. We take an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the compromises and balances struck in biodiversity conservation, examining the science of marine reserves, social and economic factors, legal frameworks, and political implications of MPAs. Prerequisites: ENE 216 and ENE 314/GOV 374.    De

Santo

454. Environmental Problems. (N)

Readings, lectures, discussions and student presentations address critical issues underpinning modern environmental problems. Primary literature specific to some of these problems is employed. Working within this framework, students apply their accumulated knowledge of environmental studies and science to propose, conduct and write up a semester long research project exploring a local, regional or global environmental problem. Formerly ENV 454. Offered every Spring.     

Bratman

490. Independent Study.

Independent study directed by the Earth and Environment staff. (Permission of chairperson).

 

 

Topics courses expected to be offered in 2018-2019

 

  • 275. Indigenous Environmental Justice.
  • 278. Political Ecology of Food and Agriculture.
  • 372. Research Concepts and Practice.
  • 471. Scholarly Research: Concepts and Practices
  • 472. Wetland Ecosystems.