• Kristi Leimgruber
Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology



Office: LSP 118


 Dr. Leimgruber is a Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology at Franklin & Marshall College. She received Bachelors of Science in Zoology and Biological Aspects of Conservation from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and earned her Ph.D. in Developmental Psychology from Yale University in 2014. Before coming to Franklin & Marshall, she was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the Social Cognitive Development Group at Harvard University. Dr. Leimgruber studies the developmental and evolutionary roots of uniquely human cooperation. Specifically, her research focuses on the role that factors such as reputation management, positive affect, prospection, and social experience play in the emergence of prosocial behaviors.


 Ph.D., Yale University, 2012-2014 

MPhil. & MS., Yale University, 2009-2012 

BS, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2000-2005

Courses Taught 

PSY470: Collaborative Research in Moral Psychology (Spring 2019)

PSY/SPM 311: Origins of Moral Thought (2018-20)

PSY490: Senior Independent Research in Psychology (2018-20)

PSY390: Directed Research in Psychology (2018-19)

PSY304: Developmental Psychology (2018)

PSY100: Introductory Psychology (2017-19)

PSY100: Introductory Psychology Laboratory (2017-19)

PSY100: Introduction to Psychology (Lecture & Lab)



Chernyak, N., Leimgruber, K.L., Dunham, Y.C., Hu, J.*, & Blake, P.R. (2019) Paying back people who harmed us but not people who helped us: Direct negative reciprocity precedes direct positive reciprocity in early development. Psychological Science, doi: 10.1177/0956797619854975


Leech, K.A., Leimgruber, K.L., Warneken, F., & Rowe, M. (2019) Conversations about the future-self improve preschoolers’ prospection abilities. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 181: 110-120. doi: 10.1016.j.jecp.2018.12.008


Leimgruber, K.L. (2018). The developmental emergence of direct reciprocity and its influence on prosocial behavior. Current Opinion in Psychology, 20: 122-126. doi:10.1016.j.copsyv.2018.01.006


Leimgruber, K.L., & Warneken, F. (2018) Reciprocity. In M. Bornstein (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of lifespan human development (pp. 1817-1818). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. doi: 10.4135/9781506307633.n677


 Leimgruber, K.L., Rosati, A.G., & Santos, L.R. (2015). Capuchin monkeys punish conspecifics who have more. Evolution and Human Behavior. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2015.12.002 


McAuliffe, K., Chang, L.W., Leimgruber, K.L., Spaulding, R. Blake, P.R., & Santos, L.R. (2015). Capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella, show no evidence for inequity aversion in a costly choice task. Animal Behavior, 103: 65-74. 


*Leimgruber, K.L., *Ward, A.F., Widness, J., Norton, M.I., Olson, K.R., Gray, K., & Santos, L.R. (2014). Give what you get: Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and 4-year-old children pay forward positive and negative outcomes to conspecifics. PLoS ONE 9(4): e96959. 


MacLean, E.L., Hare, B.A., Nunn, C.L., Addessi, E., Amici, F., Anderson, R.C.…Leimgruber, K.L., … & Zhao, Y. (2014). The evolution of self-control. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(20), e2140-2148. 


Leimgruber, K.L., Shaw, A., Santos, L.R., & Olson, K.R. (2012). Young children are more generous when others are aware of their actions. PLoS ONE, 7(10): e48292. 


Hattori, Y., Leimgruber, K.L., Fujita, K., & de Waal, F.B.M. (2012). Food-related tolerance in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) varies with knowledge of the partner’s previous food consumption. Behavior, 149(2), 171-185. 


Dindo, M., Leimgruber, K.L., Whiten, A., & de Waal, F.B.M. (2011). Observer preference in the social transmission of novel foraging techniques in capuchins (Cebus apella). American Journal of Primatology, 73(9), 920-927. 


Brosnan, S.F., Houser, D., Leimgruber, K.L., Xiao, E., & de Waal, F.B.M. (2010). Competing demands of prosociality and equity in monkeys. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31(4), 279-288. 


de Waal, F., Leimgruber, K.L., & Greenberg, A. (2008). Giving is self-rewarding for monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 13685-1368.