Associate Professor of Anthropology and Chair
Phone: 717 291-4193
Fax: 717 358-4500
I grew up in Huntingdon, Quebec and earned a BA in Anthropology with First Class Honours from McGill University in Montreal. At McGill I had the privilege of being mentored by Bruce Trigger, Fumiko-Ikawa Smith and Michael Bisson. I pursued my interest in Northeastern North American archaeology by attending graduate school at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst where I studied with Dena Dincauze, Martin Wobst, Bob Paynter, and Art Keene. I was awarded an MA in Anthropology with Distinction for my critical analysis of radiocarbon results associated with Northeastern Paleoindian sites. I earned my PhD in 1996 for my work on the provenance of native copper artifacts crafted by Late Archaic and Early Woodland hunter-gatherers. This research received generous funding from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society. Immediately following graduate school I taught for two years as a Visiting Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Ithaca College. In 1998 I joined the faculty here at Franklin and Marshall College.
In my research I have sought to uncover and challenge unexamined assumptions about indigenous peoples, particularly hunter-gatherers, in the Northeast. This research trajectory began when I was still in graduate school, and had the opportunity to study a previously unexamined collection of artifacts from the Hudson River Valley in New York. My very first publication analyzed this collection to challenge the assumed absence of hunter-gatherer groups during the immediate post-glacial period. In a second article, I demonstrated that the conventional use of paleo-ecological models and ethnographic analogies drawn from the arctic were inappropriate, and led to untenable interpretations of Northeastern hunter-gatherers. In my dissertation I sought to evaluate the dominant model of native copper procurement by utilizing trace element analysis to test the veracity of the 160-year old assumption that all Native Americans east of the Mississippi procured their copper exclusively from the Great Lakes. This project was the first to use Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis to test copper artifacts from the Late Archaic and Early Woodland periods against a large database of geological copper signatures.
My recently published work in central New York is the latest expression of this research program, as I have examined ancient landscapes that were previously thought to be marginal to hunter-gatherer lifeways. It has long been thought that hunter-gatherer in this area had a relatively simple land-use system, focused on river valleys and lake shores. This characterization is based largely on untested assumptions derived from research conducted from 1930-1970 on a few large sites. It has been widely accepted that these hunter-gatherers rarely if ever utilized upland areas; this assumption has been handed down largely because upland areas have rarely been sampled, creating a perpetuating tautology. I recently engaged in a research program to sample and excavate previously unstudied landscapes in the Finger Lakes region in the successful attempt to demonstrate that uplands were in fact intensively used by Late Archaic hunter-gatherers. Central New York has thus been the site of several F&M archaeological fieldschools.
In recent years, I have begun to consider how the reality of post-contact indigenous political life may differ from our prevailing assumptions about it, through the archaeological and ethnohistorical analysis of the life of "Queen" Catharine Montour. Catharine Montour, a woman of mixed French and Native ancestry, governed Catharine's Town, an 18th Century Iroquoian village of over 30 homes destroyed in the American Revolution. On September 1, 1779, as part of a systematic campaign against the Iroquois, Generals Clinton and Sullivan descended upon Catharine's Town, burning homes, adjacent fruit orchards, winter food stores, and leaving the town a smoldering waste. With support from a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Stipend I am interpreting the life of this nearly forgotten leader and archaeologically exploring the remains of her village in present day Montour Falls, New York.
Since 2002, I have been involved with the Thaddeus Stevens and Lydia Hamilton Smith historic site, a project I co-direct with James Delle of Kutztown University. This project focused on the excavation of an urban lot once owned and occupied by Thaddeus Stevens (1792-1868), one of the 19th century's best known abolitionists, and Lydia Hamilton Smith (1813-1884), a businesswoman who was Stevens's long-time housekeeper. The data we recovered from the site includes a modified cistern we believe was used as a hiding place on the Underground Railroad. Beyond the materials directly relating to Stevens and Smith, we recovered artifacts relating to an early 18th century lime kiln, a mid-18th century blacksmith shop, an early 19th century brewery, a mid-19th century pottery works, a late 19th century hotel, and an early 20th century veterinary hospital. The site has proven to be a rich source for answering numerous research questions, and has led to multiple opportunities for collaborative research which has included several cohorts of F&M students. For our efforts we were recipients of the 2003 Historic Preservation Trust of Lancaster Elvin N. Heisey Award for Distinguished Volunteer Service and the 2005 Preservation Pennsylvania Historic Preservation Award for Archaeology.
And finally, I have published several articles on the history of women in late 19th and early 20th century Americanist archaeology. I have served on both the AAA and SAA Committee on the Status of Women in Anthropology/Archaeology and in 2000 I was the recipient of the American Association of University Women (AAUW) Recognition Award for Emerging Scholars.
in prep The Archaeology of Copper Artifacts in Eastern North America [a collection of twelve articles that focus on metalworking by indigenous peoples in the East during the pre-Contact and historic eras]
1999 The Archaeological Northeast, edited by Mary Ann Levine, Kenneth Sassaman, and Michael Nassaney. Native Peoples of the Americas Series, Bergin & Garvey Press, Westport, Connecticut [paperback issued in 2000].
Book Chapters and Journal Articles
nd Determining the Provenance of Native Copper Artifacts from Northeastern North America: Evidence from Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science [accepted with revision]
2005 Overcoming Disciplinary Solitude: The Archaeology and Geology of Native Copper in Eastern North America. Geoarcheology [in press]
2005 Heritage Tourism and Community Outreach: Public Archaeology at the Thaddeus Stevens and Lydia Hamilton Smith Site in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. [with Kelly Britt and James A. Delle]. International Journal of Heritage Studies 11(5):399-414.
2004 Excavations at the Thaddeus Stevens/Lydia Hamilton Smith Site, Lancaster, PA: Archaeological Evidence for the Underground Railroad? [with James A. Delle]. Northeast Historical Archaeology 33:131-152.
2004 The Clauson Site: Late Archaic Settlement and Subsistence in the Uplands of Central of New York. Archaeology of Eastern North America 32:161-181.
2003 The Cayuga Lake Archaeology Project: Surveying Marginalized Landscapes in New York's Finger Lakes Region. Archaeology of Eastern North America 31:133-150.
1999 Native Copper in the Northeast: An Overview of Potential Sources Available to Indigenous Peoples. In The Archaeological Northeast, edited by Mary Ann Levine et al., pp. 183-199. Bergin & Garvey Press, Westport, Connecticut.
1999 Preface. In The Archaeological Northeast, edited by Mary Ann Levine, et. al., pp. xv-xviii. Bergin & Garvey Press, Westport, Connecticut. [with Kenneth Sassaman and Michael S. Nassaney].
1999 Uncovering a Buried Past: Women in Americanist Archaeology Before the First World War. In Assembling the Past: Studies in the Professionalization of Archaeology, edited by Alice B. Kehoe, pp. 133-151.University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
1997 The Tyranny Continues: Ethnographic Analogy and Eastern Paleo-Indians. In Caribou andReindeer Hunters of the Northern Hemisphere, edited by Lawrence J. Jackson and Paul T. Thacker, pp. 221-244. Avebury, Aldershot, Great Britain.
1996 Women's Work. In The Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology edited by Paul Bahn, pp. 356-357. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [with Alice Kehoe].
1994 Presenting the Past: A Review of Research on Women in Archaeology. In Equity Issues for Women in Archaeology, edited by Margaret C. Nelson, Sarah M. Nelson, and Alison Wylie, pp. 23-36. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association Number 5.
1994 Creating Their Own Niches: Career Styles Among Women in Americanist Archaeology Between the Wars. In Women in Archaeology, edited by Cheryl Claassen, pp. 9-40. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
1991 An Historical Overview of Research on Women in Anthropology. In The Archaeology of Gender, Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Chacmool Conference, edited by Dale Walde and Noreen Willows, pp. 177-186. The Archaeological Association of the University of Calgary.
1990 Accommodating Age: Radiocarbon Results and Fluted Point Sites in Northeastern North America. Archaeology of Eastern North America 18:33-63.
1989 New Evidence for Early Postglacial Occupations in the Upper Hudson Valley. The Bulletin: Journal of the New York State Archaeological Association 98:5-12.
1999 Archaeology's Unrecognized Working Women. In Archaeology: Down to Earth, 2nd edition, by David Hurst Thomas. Fort Worth, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, pages 18-19. [reprinted from "Creating Their Own Niches"... Levine (1994:11-12)]
1998 Archaeology's Unrecognized Working Women. In Archaeology, 3rd edition, by David Hurst Thomas. Fort Worth, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, page 18. [reprinted from "Creating Their Own Niches"... Levine (1994:11-12)]
Courses I Teach at Franklin and Marshall College
• Introduction to Archaeology (ANT 102)
• Great Mysteries of the Past (ANT 170; First Year Seminar)
• North American Indians of the Eastern Woodlands (ANT 261)
• North American Archaeology (ANT 260)
• Hunter-Gatherers (ANT 325)
• Queens, Goddesses, and Archaeology (ANT 365)
• Archaeological Methods (ANT 411)
• Field Methods in Prehistoric Archaeology (ANT 471)