Robert C. Gray is The Honorable and Mrs. John C. Kunkel Professor of Government. He received degrees in Government from the University of Texas at Austin (B.A., 1968; Ph.D., 1975). He joined the Franklin & Marshall faculty in 1972.

He has experience in government, at an international think tank, and as an editor of a scholarly journal. He worked at the Pentagon in the Office of the Secretary of Defense as a Council on Foreign Relations Fellow in 1979-80 and as a consultant to the Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress for six years in the 1980s. He was a research associate in London at the International Institute for Strategic Studies in 1987. For fifteen years, he was the North American Editor of Defense Analysis, a scholarly journal published in the United Kingdom.

Professor Gray received the Lindback Award for Distinguished Teaching in 1983. He chaired the Department of Government for nine years (seven years in the 1980s and from 2008 to 2010).

He taught courses on international politics as well as foreign and defense policy.


His research projects examine the history of security studies and the evolution of American national security strategy.


Books and Monographs

Landmarks in Defense Literature (co-edited with Martin Edmonds). Lancaster, UK: Centre for Defence and International Security Studies, 2001.

American Foreign Policy Since Detente (co-edited with Stanley J. Michalak). New York: Harper & Row, 1984.

Nuclear Strategy and Arms Control: Challenges for U.S. Policy, Headline Series #261 (co-authored with Stanley R. Sloan). New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1982.

Articles, Book Chapters, and Government Reports

“The Study of Strategy: A Civilian Academic Perspective,” in Gabriel Marcella, ed., Teaching Strategy: Challenge and Response. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2010, pp. 47-77.

"The Implications of Missile Defense for Northeast Asia," Orbis, 48 (Spring 2004): 335-350 (with Amy L. Freedman).

"Landmarks in Defense Literature: A Review of Quincy Wright's A Study of War," Defense Analysis, 14 (August 1998): 199-204.

"Territorial Security and Peace: A Report on a Conference on Britain in the Post-Cold War World," Newsletter of the British Politics Group, Number 86 (Fall 1996): 13-16.

"United States of America" (country profile). Jane's NATO Handbook: 1991-1992. Surrey, UK: Jane's Defence Data, 1991, pp. 324-328.

"United States of America" (country profile). Jane's NATO Handbook: 1990-1991. Surrey, UK: Jane's Defence Data, 1990, pp. 408-412.

"The Bush Administration and Mobile ICBM: A Framework for Evaluation," Survival, XXXI (September/October 1989): 415-431.

"United States of America" (country profile). Jane's NATO Handbook: 1989-1990. Surrey, UK: Jane's Defence Data, 1989, pp. 57-61.

"Policy-Making for National Security," in B. Thomas Trout, James E. Harf, and William H. Kincade, eds., Essentials of National Security. Menlo Park: Addison-Wesley, 1989, pp. 163-189.

"The Idea of Stability in the Current Strategic Debate," in Donald M. Snow, ed., Soviet-American Security Relations in the 1990s. Lexington: Lexington Books, 1989, pp. 41-55.

"U.S. Bargaining Chips and Arms Control," March 3, 1988, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. 34 pp.

"Arms Control and Strategic Weapons in the 99th Congress," in U.S., House, Committee on Foreign Affairs, Congress and Foreign Policy 1985-86. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988, pp. 65-91.

"The Internal Dynamics of U.S. Nuclear Arms Control Policy-Making," in U.S., House, Committee on Foreign Affairs, Fundamentals of Nuclear Arms Control, Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986. 38 pp.

"Congress, MX, and Arms Control," in U.S., House, Committee on Foreign Affairs, Congress and Foreign Policy 1984. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985, pp. 48-69.

"Influencing Policy," Arms Control Today, (February/March, 1985), pp. 4-5.

"Congress, Arms Control, and Weapons Modernization," in U.S., House, Committee on Foreign Affairs, Congress and Foreign Policy 1983. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984, pp. 86-109.

"The United States and the Soviet Union," in American Foreign Policy Since Detente (described above under "Books and Monographs").

"The Nuclear Freeze: Politically Useful, Strategically Flawed?" USA Today (the magazine-formerly Intellect), May 1983, pp. 6-7.

"The Reagan Nuclear Strategy," Arms Control Today, 13 (March 1983): 1-3 and 9-10. Reprinted in Nuclear Weapons and the Threat of Nuclear War, edited by John B. Harris and Eric Markusen (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1986), pp. 119-123.

"Arms Control Implications of Ballistic Missile Defense," Arms Control: The Journal of Arms Control and Disarmament, 3 (September 1982): 29-45. Also published in book form as chapter three of AntiBallistic Missile Defense in the 1980s, edited by Ian Bellany and Coit Blacker (London: Frank Cass, 1983).

"The Process and Politics of American Defense" (a review-article of four books), Polity, XV (Winter 1982): 315-323.

"The Coordination of Arms Control Policy and the Weapons Acquisition Process: The Case of Arms Control Impact Statements," Arms Control: The Journal of Arms Control and Disarmament (London), 2 (September 1981): 218-236.

"Deterrence, Defence, and Detente: The Military and Political Challenges Facing NATO," NATO Review, 27 (October 1979): 28-31.

"Learning from History: Case Studies of the Weapons Acquisition Process," a review article in World Politics, XXXI (April 1979): 457-470.

"Why Weapons Make Poor Bargaining Chips," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 33 (September 1977): 8-9. Reprinted in part in the St. Louis Post Dispatch. Reprinted in full in the Congressional Record, November 4, 1977, pp. S18959-60 (with Robert J. Bresler).

"The Bargaining Chip and SALT," Political Science Quarterly, 92 (Spring 1977): 65-88. Reprinted as Special Issue #224 (1977) in Department of Defense, Current News. Also reprinted in Demetrios Caraley and M.A. Epstein, eds., The Making of American Foreign and Domestic Policy (Dabor Social Science Publications, 1978), pp. 253-276 (with Robert J. Bresler).

"Economic and Political Aspects of the Origins of the Cold War," a review-article in Polity, IX (Spring 1977): 356-363.

"The Legacy of James Schlesinger," Intellect (February 1977): 228-229 (with Robert J. Bresler).

Review-article on Henry Wallace and the Cold War (untitled), Virginia Journal of International Law, 17 (Winter 1977): 350-358.

"Opposition to Globalism: Alternative Visions of American Foreign Policy in the 1940s," a review-article in New York Law Forum, XXI (Spring 1976): 683-690.

"Reforming the CIA," Intellect (March 1976): 426-428. Reprinted in abbreviated form in F&M Today (May 1976): 4. Reprinted in full in Japanese in Epoch: Report of U.S. Affairs (Summer 1977): 16-18 and 21-22.

Book Reviews

Reviews in the American Political Science Review, Journal of Politics, Journal of Strategic Studies, Newsletter of the British Politics Group, Political Science Quarterly, and Polity.

His most recent book review appeared in Intelligence and National Security:

Review of Barry Buzan and Lene Hansen, The Evolution of International Security Studies, Intelligence and National Security, 26:5 (2011), pp. 752-754.

Course Information

Government 130         International Politics

Government 231         National Security Policy

Government 474         Power, Strategy, and Security